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BatetEdit

Batet has the following distinctive characteristics:

  • old q merges with kw.
  • old kp merges with kw.
  • old glotal stop disappears
  • a is added to all words ending in a consonant.
  • old ö turns to a
  • old ü turns to i
  • Topic case is lost.
  • old aspirated consonants ph, bh, th and dh lose aspiration, merging with regular consonants p, b, t and d .

MorphologyEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns are divided in classes, according to the nature of what is being nominated. There is a lot of derivation done by simply changing the class of a word. There are ten grammatical cases, all of them expressed by suffixes.

ClassesEdit

The noun classes are the following: 1 - human beings (man, child, woman, teacher &c.) 2 - nature elements (wind, rain, river &c.); places 3 - animals 4 - objects, tols (hammer, shoe, weapon &c.) 5 - liquids (water, blood, milk &c.) 6 - inanimate objects (stone, wood, ice &c.) 7 - abstract (love, idea, friendship, fear &c.) 8 - actions (war, performance, show &c.) 9 - features (color, size, goodness, attitude &c.) 10 - miscellaneous (mostly used for more moodern nouns such as "computer program", "[interplanetary] voyage", "cloning" &c.)

These classes are denoted in nouns and adjectives by means of suffixes. In the following table, the suffixes are indicated for both singular and plural:

  • Class 1: -da, -ma
  • Class 2: -di, -kwi
  • Class 3: -i, -isha
  • Class 4: -yika, -hapa
  • Class 5: -la, -ta
  • Class 6: -mana, -tshana
  • Class 7: -kwi, -ika
  • Class 8: -kwa, -a
  • Class 9: -wa, -laka
  • Class 10: -e, -enga

Examples:

  • ghasuda "man", ghasuma "men"
  • rasidi "wind", rasikwi "winds"
  • tshasii "bird", tshasiisha "birds"
  • xangpoyika "hammer", xangpohapa "hammers"
  • tuklila "a drop", tuklita "drops"
  • fiklamana "stone", fiklatshana "stones"
  • kwukwadakwi "idea", kwukwadaika "ideas"
  • bingeklekwa "war", bingeklea "wars"
  • rokyuzowa "color", rokyuzolaka "colors"
  • puklendue "computer program", puklenduenga "computer programs"

CaseEdit

  • Nominative
  • Accusative
  • Genitive
  • Dative
  • Locative
  • Instrumental
  • Commitative
  • Ablative
  • Abortive

There is a Vocative case, which is marked by the absence of case markers.

There are two series of suffixes, one for animate and one for inanimate nouns.

Inanimate
Nominative -ndi -nda
Accusative -ghu -ena
Genitive -eta -jo
Dative -la -li
Locative -mba -mbi
Instrumental (pref.) -ku -ku
Commitative (pref.) -nge -nge
Ablative (pref.) -ze -ze
Abortive (pref.) -ro -ro

Examples:

  • ghasuda! "(oh) man!" (vocative)
  • ghasudanda "(a/the) man" (subject)
  • ghasudaenda "(a/the) man" (direct object)
  • ghasudajo "of (a/the) man"
  • ghasudali "(a/the) man" (indirect object)
  • ghasudambi "in/on (a/the) man"
  • ghasudaku "by means of (a/the) man"
  • ghasudange "together with (a/the) man"
  • ghasudaze "from/by (a/the) man"
  • ghasudaro "without (a/the) man"
  • ghasuma! "(oh) men!" (vocative)
  • ghasumanda "(the) men" (subject)
  • ghasumaenda "(the) men" (direct object)
  • ghasumajo "of (the) men"
  • ghasumali "(the) men" (indirect object)
  • ghasumambi "in/on (the) men"
  • ghasumaku "by means of (the) men"
  • ghasumange "together with (the) men"
  • ghasumaze "from/by (the) men"
  • ghasumaro "without (the) men"
  • kwatshayikndi "(a/the) knife" (subject)
  • kwatshayikghu "(a/the) knife" (direct object)
  • kwatshayiketa "of (a/the) knife"
  • kwatshayikla "(a/the) knife" (indirect object)
  • kwatshayikmba "in/on (a/the) knife"
  • kwatshayikku "by means of (a/the) knife"
  • kwatshayiknge "together with (a/the) knife"
  • kwatshayikze "from/by (a/the) knife"
  • kwatshayikro "without (a/the) knife"
  • kwatshahapndi "(the) knives" (subject)
  • kwatshahapghu "(the) knives" (direct object)
  • kwatshahapeta "of (the) knives"
  • kwatshahapla "(the) knives" (indirect object)
  • kwatshahapmba "in/on (the) knives"
  • kwatshahapku "by means of (the) knives"
  • kwatshahapnge "together with (the) knives"
  • kwatshahapze "from/by (the) knives"
  • kwatshahapro "without (the) knives"

DerivationEdit

The change of a noun from one class to other is largely used as a means of derivation. E.g.:

  • biyakwi "teaching" (class 7)
    • biyayika "book", "textbook", "scholbook" (class 4)
    • biyada "teacher" (class 1)
    • biyakwa "lesson", "lecture" (class 8)
    • biyadi "school" (class 2)

There may even be secondary derivation with more than one suffix. E.g.:

  • biyayika "book", "textbook", "scholbook" (class 4)
    • biyayikda "writer" (class 1)
    • biyayikdi "book store", "library" (class 2)
      • biyayikdida "book seller", "book dealer", "librarian" (class 1)

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives come before nouns and receive the same class suffix as the noun:

  • bisijuda ghasuda "a tall man", bisijuma ghasuma "tall men"

Adjectives are not declined for case. E.g.:

  • kwughiyika kwatshayikndi "(a/the) sharp knife" (subject)
  • kwughiyika kwatshayikghu "(a/the) sharp knife" (direct object)
  • kwughiyika kwatshayiketa "of (a/the) sharp knife"
  • kwughiyika kwatshayikla "(a/the) sharp knife" (indirect object)
  • kwughiyika kwatshayikmba "in/on (a/the) sharp knife"
  • kwughiyika kwatshayikku "by means of (a/the) sharp knife"
  • kwughiyika kwatshayiknge "together with (a/the) sharp knife"
  • kwughiyika kwatshayikze "from/by (a/the) sharp knife"
  • kwughiyika kwatshayikro "without (a/the) sharp knife"
  • kwughihapa kwatshahapndi "(the) sharp knives" (subject)
  • kwughihapa kwatshahapghu "(the) sharp knives" (direct object)
  • kwughihapa kwatshahapeta "of (the) sharp knives"
  • kwughihapa kwatshahapla "(the) sharp knives" (indirect object)
  • kwughihapa kwatshahapmba "in/on (the) sharp knives"
  • kwughihapa kwatshahapku "by means of (the) sharp knives"
  • kwughihapa kwatshahapnge "together with (the) sharp knives"
  • kwughihapa kwatshahapze "from/by (the) sharp knives"
  • kwughihapa kwatshahapro "without (the) sharp knives"

ComparisonEdit

In Nyewere´ there is no standard way to compare adjectives. Several constructions were used for this purpose.

  • "X near Y": mutshu grodadango yipatada ndughi bayoda "This boy (is) old near that (one)" -> "This boy is older than that one."
  • "Y does not compare to Y": mutshu grodadango yipatada, abruja grosa dedikle bayodali "This boy (is) old, but does't compare to that (one)" -> "This boy is older than that one."

PronounsEdit

PersonalEdit

Personal pronouns never receive class suffixes.

  • kasu, kanza "I"
  • butshe "thou", "you" (sing.)
  • luya "he", "she", "it"
  • yunga, tshoru "we"
  • boshi "you" (pl.)
  • bukwa "they"

PossessiveEdit

  • kanjo "my"
  • bujo "thy", "your" (sing.)
  • lujo "his", "her", "its"
  • yunjo "our"
  • bojo, "your" (pl.)
  • bukjo "their"

DemonstrativeEdit

  • mutshu "this" (near)
  • bayo "that" (far)

Demonstrative pronouns are not declined, except if used with the function of a noun. E.g.:

  • Mutshu biyayikwu yipatayika. Bayoyikwu ndureyika. "This book is old. That (one) is new."

InterrogativeEdit

RelativeEdit

IndefiniteEdit

NumbersEdit

CardinalEdit

  • 0: sutu
  • 1: yakwaxe
  • 2: mumba
  • 3: mutupa
  • 4: xeruge
  • 5: tagunga
  • 6: kwagrure
  • 7: figrole
  • 8: dafa
  • 9: jasula
  • 10: musapi
  • 11: yakwamukwe
  • 12: mumbamukwe
  • 13: mutumukwe
  • 14: xerumukwe
  • 15: tagumukwe
  • 16: kwagrumukwe
  • 17: figromukwe
  • 18: mbotshemukwe
  • 19: jasumukwe
  • 20: etfaja
  • 21: etfaja yakwaxe
  • 30: mangmutupa
  • 40: mangxeruge
  • 50: mangtagunga
  • 60: mangkwagrure
  • 70: mangfigrole
  • 80: mangmbotsheju
  • 90: mangjasula
  • 100: lutsendu; riwali
  • 200: mumbalutsendu
  • 1,000: yafaji; shingahe
  • 1,234: yafaji mumbalutsendu mangmutupa xeruge

VerbsEdit

Verbs in Batet are extremely simple. The only inflection used is subject agreement. Verbs receive class suffixes according to the class to which the subject belongs. Tenses, moods and so are indicated by means of auxiliary words. E.g.:

  • Kasungo zagutada lingonga zetshudadi zendamuxadi "I live here whole life" -> "I have lived here my whole life."
  • Kasunda tshasapa tshusayeda mukwipa "I want go there" -> "I want to go there"
  • Kasunda tshasapa babaena tshusayeda mukwipa "I want the go there" -> "I want you to go there"
  • Luya grosa tshasapa makyorida babali "He not want talk to-the" -> "He does not want to talk to you."

Note that the verb agreement shows only the class and the noun of the subject. Also note that the suffixes are added exclusively to the verb itself, not to any auxiliary word.

ModifiersEdit

These are place immediately before the verb or at the end of the sentence.

ModalsEdit

  • tshasapa "want"
  • ghusho, asfanda "must"
  • ghotshe "may"
  • rasa "can"
  • kwuda "should"
  • ghafa "might"
  • gripa "be supposed to"
  • dawu, mbakya "like"
  • tshosha, beri "would like"

TimeEdit

  • reti (present continuous)
  • kwapo (past)
  • xenga (future)
  • lisha "just" (very recent past)
  • kwode "soon"

AspectEdit

  • grufa "start to" (inceptive)
  • shira "always" (durative)
  • mbekwisha "ever"
  • mito, mutsu "again and again" (repetitive)

MoodEdit

  • beri (conditional)
  • tshutuya (subjunctive)
  • nde (imperative; generally omitted)
  • ewena (reported speech)

SyntaxEdit

Nominal SentencesEdit

The copula tsha may be used to link a nominal predicate (adjective or noun) to a subject in the nominative.

Predicative adjectives agree in class and number with the noun. Predicative nouns agree in number with the subject or topic.

Personal pronouns do not receive class suffixes.

The copula may have agreement suffixes, but it does generally not use them.

Examples:

  • Kasunda (tsha(da)) biyada. "I[SUBJECT] [COPULA] teacher" -> "I am a teacher."
  • Yunganda (tsha(ma)) biyama. "We[SUBJECT] [COPULA] teachers" -> "We are teachers."
  • Kasunda (tsha(da)) bongoda. "I[SUBJECT] [COPULA] tired" -> "I am tired."
  • Yunganda (tsha(ma)) bongonda. "We[SUBJECT] [COPULA] tired" -> "We are tired."
  • Mutshu biyayikndi (tsha(yika)) hekrayika. "This book[SUBJECT] [COPULA] good" -> "This book is good."

Adverbial expressions can also be used as a predicate:

  • Kasunda (tsha(da)) lingonga. "I[SUBJECT] [COPULA] here" -> "I am here."
  • Bukwanda (tsha(ma)) lerashidimba. "They[TOPIC] house[LOCATIVE]" -> "They are at home", "They are in the house."

Attributive x Predicative AdjectivesEdit

Attributive adjectives come before the noun and agree in class, number and partially in case (see above). Predicative adjectives come after the subject/topic and agree in class and number with it. Compare:

  • Mutshu biyayikndi (tsha(yika)) hekrayika. "This book[SUBJECT] good" -> "This book is good."
  • Mutshu hekrayik biyayikndi (tsha(yika))... "This good book[SUBJECT]..." -> "This good book (is)..."

Verbal SentencesEdit

Word order is SVO, that is, subject first, then the verb, then any complements (objects). Direct object comes before indirect object. Adverbial expressions come at the end of the sentence. Verbal modifiers generally come before the verb, but many of them are considered adverbs and come at the end of the sentence.

Examples:

  • Kasunda tshasapa hagukada mutshu xeklekwighu luyali mopakwa "I want give this flowers[OBJECT] she[DATIVE] today" -> "I want to give her these flowers today."
  • Luyanda fimbada mutshukwighu kasuli rengokli. "He[SUBJECT] say this[OBJECT] I[DATIVE] already" -> "He has already told me that."

SamplesEdit

  • Resoma jutumanda zegrupahokwa tekwuma ramo dashatema, zegraferakwi ramo zemotshejesik. Bukwanda mbamatshibma kumiyakwakwi ramo kudetsakwi, bukwanda kwuda shengamama yiwondemali kufatshirakwi gredagtokwieta.
    • "All humans from.birth fre and equal, in.dignity and in.rights. They endowed with.reason and with.conscience, they should act towards.others in.spirit of.brotherhod."
      • -> "All human beings are born fre and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhod."

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