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The languageEdit

One of the most spoken languages in the North continent of Drion, Bovonian is the religious, cultural, literary and legal language of nothing less than ten countries. Historically, several people have used Bovonian either or as a special language or as their national language.

Considered by their speakers as the most beautiful language in the world, Bovonian literature is one of the most prolific in Drion, rivalizing with Dahur, Tláymyts and Ravumi in this field. Bovonian poetry is, indeed, the strongest and most influent in all Drion. In many countries (even in those which, in other aspects, are not influenced by Bovonian culture at all) it is considered the language of poetry par excellence. One of the reasons for that is the extremely rich vocabulary with which the language is endowed.

The name "Bovonian" is actually a Prondaset word. The native name of the language is Bubhauna, whose origin and meaning are obscure.

An example of Bovonian short poetry in the form known as tâddanhâhi:

"Nâmâhiw duttiw annaliw
Nâmâhaw duttaw rânaw
Dutsh madalshayum."


MorphologyEdit

CharacteristicsEdit

Classical Bovonian preserved the vocabulary and most of the characteristics of Proto-Bovonian. It suffered a process of phonological "cleaning", softening some consonant clusters and making the language aesthetically more beautiful.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

p t tsh
b d j (dzh)
ph th kh
bh dh gh
s sh
m n r l
y w h H

VowelsEdit

Vowels are:

a â
i î
u û
M (am, ma) N (an, na)
R (ar, ra) L (al, la)

MorphologyEdit

NounsEdit

There are three gender of nouns: masculine, feminine and neuter. Nouns are declined according to three numbers: singular, dual and plural, and to ten cases, viz.:

  1. Nominative (subject)
  2. Accusative (direct object)
  3. Dative (indirect object)
  4. Ablative
  5. Genitive (possessive)
  6. Locative
  7. Commitative (company)
  8. Instrumental
  9. Vocative
  10. Ergative (agent for passive voice)

Noun declension is extremely regular, with no exceptions.

Short and Long VowelsEdit

The declension shown below presents only short vowels. Words ending in a long vowel keep the ending vowel long through the declension. E.g.: nahâ "mother", accus. nahâw, gen. nahîtsh, dat. nahâk, abl. nahûm, nom. pl. nahâd &c.

Masculine NounsEdit

Declension
Number Singular Dual Plural
Nominative -(u) -uH -ud
Accusative -a -aj -ad
Dative -uk -aksh -agaH
Ablative -um -an -unaH
Genitive -itsh -itshaH -ittaH
Locative -ar -aj -ardaH
Commitative -ubba -ubbaH -ubdaH
Instrumental -anga -anksh -angdaH
Vocative - -uH -ud
Ergative -am -ansh -andaH
Example: ûnanu "man", "person"
Number Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ûnanu ûnanuH ûnanud
Accusative ûnana ûnanaj ûnanad
Dative ûnanuk ûnanaksh ûnanagaH
Ablative ûnanum ûnanan ûnanunaH
Genitive ûnanitsh ûnanitshaH ûnanittaH
Locative ûnanar ûnanaj ûnanardaH
Commitative ûnanubba ûnanubbaH ûnanubdaH
Instrumental ûnananga ûnananksh ûnanangdaH
Vocative ûnan ûnanuH ûnanud
Ergative ûnanam ûnanansh ûnanandaH

Feminine NounsEdit

Declension
Number Singular Dual Plural
Nominative -a -aH -ad
Accusative -aw -aj -ad
Dative -ak -aksh -agh
Ablative -um -an -unaH
Genitive -itsh -itshaH -ittaH
Locative -ar -aj -ardaH
Commitative -ubba -ubbaH -ubdaH
Instrumental -anga -anksh -angdaH
Vocative -a -aH -ad
Ergative -am -ansh -andaH
Example: bhanârâha "family"
Number Singular Dual Plural
Nominative bhanârâha bhanârâhaH bhanârâhad
Accusative bhanârâhaw bhanârâhaj bhanârâhad
Dative bhanârâhak bhanârâhaksh bhanârâhagh
Ablative bhanârâhum bhanârâhan bhanârâhunaH
Genitive bhanârâhitsh bhanârâhitshaH bhanârâhittaH
Locative bhanârâhar bhanârâhaj bhanârâhardaH
Commitative bhanârâhubba bhanârâhubbaH bhanârâhubdaH
Instrumental bhanârâhanga bhanârâhanksh bhanârâhangdaH
Vocative bhanârâha bhanârâhaH bhanârâhad
Ergative bhanârâham bhanârâhansh bhanârâhandaH

Neuter NounsEdit

Declension
Number Singular Dual Plural
Nominative -i -is -isaH
Accusative -iw -ij -isiH
Dative -utsh -iksh -ijaH
Ablative -um -in -injaH
Genitive -itsh -iktshaH -ikshaH
Locative -ar -aj -arsaH
Commitative -ubba -ubbaH -upshaH
Instrumental -anga -anksh -ankshaH
Vocative - -uH -ud
Ergative -im -insh -inshaH
Example: dhâtati "city", "town"
Number Singular Dual Plural
Nominative dhâtati dhâtatis dhâtatisaH
Accusative dhâtatiw dhâtatij dhâtatisiH
Dative dhâtatutsh dhâtatiksh dhâtatijaH
Ablative dhâtatum dhâtatin dhâtatinjaH
Genitive dhâtatitsh dhâtatiktshaH dhâtatikshaH
Locative dhâtatar dhâtataj dhâtatarsaH
Commitative dhâtatubba dhâtatubbaH dhâtatupshaH
Instrumental dhâtatanga dhâtatanksh dhâtatankshaH
Vocative dhâtat dhâtatuH dhâtatud
Ergative dhâtatim dhâtatinsh dhâtatinshaH

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives are declined exactly the same way as nouns. Each adjective inflects for gender, number and case.

There are adjectives with "free" theme and those with theme in -y. E.g., mupph- is a "free" theme adjective, while kalamty- is an adjective with theme in -y.

Mupphu, muppha, mupphi "new", "young"Edit

Masculine
Number Singular Dual Plural
Nominative mupphu mupphuH mupphud
Accusative muppha mupphaj mupphad
Dative mupphuk mupphaksh mupphagaH
Ablative mupphum mupphan mupphunaH
Genitive mupphitsh mupphitshaH mupphittaH
Locative mupphar mupphaj mupphardaH
Commitative mupphubba mupphubbaH mupphubdaH
Instrumental mupphanga mupphanksh mupphangdaH
Vocative mupph mupphuH mupphud
Ergative muppham mupphansh mupphandaH
Feminine
Number Singular Dual Plural
Nominative muppha mupphaH mupphad
Accusative mupphaw mupphaj mupphad
Dative mupphak mupphaksh mupphagh
Ablative mupphum mupphan mupphunaH
Genitive mupphitsh mupphitshaH mupphittaH
Locative mupphar mupphaj mupphardaH
Commitative mupphubba mupphubbaH mupphubdaH
Instrumental mupphanga mupphanksh mupphangdaH
Vocative muppha mupphaH mupphad
Ergative muppham mupphansh mupphandaH
Neuter
Number Singular Dual Plural
Nominative mupphi mupphis mupphisaH
Accusative mupphiw mupphij mupphisiH
Dative mupphutsh mupphiksh mupphijaH
Ablative mupphum mupphin mupphinjaH
Genitive mupphitsh mupphiktshaH mupphikshaH
Locative mupphar mupphaj muppharsaH
Commitative mupphubba mupphubbaH mupphupshaH
Instrumental mupphanga mupphanksh mupphankshaH
Vocative mupph mupphuH mupphud
Ergative mupphim mupphinsh mupphinshaH

Comparative FormEdit

SuperiorityEdit

The suffix -âval- is added to the stem of the adjective, resulting in a new adjective. Ex.:

  • kalamtyu "large", kalamtyâvalu "larger"
  • mupphu "new", mupphâvalu "newer"
  • punnu "good", punnâvalu "better"
EqualityEdit
InferiorityEdit

SuperlativeEdit

The suffix -âdhân- is added to the stem of the adjective, resulting in a new adjective. Ex.:

  • kalamtyu "large", kalamtyâdhânu "the largest"
  • mupphu "new", mupphâdhânu "the newest"
  • punnu "good", punnâdhânu "the best"

PronounsEdit

Pronouns follow the same declension system used for nouns and adjectives, with little differences in some forms.

PersonalEdit

1st and 2nd person pronouns have special forms, while the 3d person pronoun follows the regular noun endings.

Although there are dual forms for all pronouns, they were not always used, plural forms being preferred. Dual forms are used mostly when the speaker wanted to emphasize the fact that the elements are exactly two, whenever this information is absolutely necessary.

There are reduced forms for Dative and Accusative.

Singular
Nominative Accusative Dative Ablative Genitive Locative Commitative Instrumental Vocative Ergative
1st sing. way, iwas niw nutsh num nitsh nar nubba nanga - nim
2nd sing. daH diw dutsh dum ditsh dar dubba danga da dim
3rd sing. m. jîru jîra, ja jîruk, juk jîrum jîritsh jîrar jîrubba jîranga jîr jîram
3rd sing. f. jîra jîraw, jaw jîrak, jak jîrum jîritsh jîrar jîrubba jîranga jîra jîram
3rd sing. n. jîri jîri, ji jîrutsh, jutsh jîrum jîritsh jîrar jîrubba jîranga jîr jîrim
Dual
Nominative Accusative Dative Ablative Genitive Locative Commitative Instrumental Vocative Ergative
1st dual mudduH mij miksh minsh miktshaH maj mubbaH manks muH minsh
2nd dual phudduH dij diks din diktshaH daj dubbaH danksh duH dinsh
3rd dual m. jîruH jîraj, jaj jîraksh, jaksh jîran jîritshaH jîraj jîrubbaH jîranksh jîruH jîransh
3rd dual f. jîraH jîraj, jaj jîraksh, jaksh jîran jîritshaH jîraj jîrubbaH jîranksh jîraH jîransh
3rd dual n. jîris jîrij, jij jîriksh, jiksh jîrin jîritshaH jîraj jîrubbaH jîranksh jîruH jîrinsh
Plural
Nominative Accusative Dative Ablative Genitive Locative Commitative Instrumental Vocative Ergative
1st pl. muddaH misiH, miH mijaH, maH minjaH mikshaH marshaH mupshaH mankssaH mud minshaH
2nd pl. phuddaH phisiH, piH phijaH, paH phinjaH phikshaH pharshaH phupshaH phankssaH phud phinshaH
3rd pl. m. jûddaH jûddad, jad jûddagaH, jaH jûddunaH jûddittaH jûddardaH jûddubdaH jûddangdaH jûddud jûddandaH
3rd pl. f. jâddaH jâddad, jad jâddagh, jagh jâddunaH jâddittaH jâddardaH jâddubdaH jâddangdaH jâddad jâddandaH
3rd pl. n. jîsaH jîsiH, jid jîsijaH, jiH jîsinjaH jîsikshaH jîsarsaH jîsupshaH jîsankshaH jîsud jîsinshaH

PossessiveEdit

Possessive pronouns are declined like any other adjective.

Person Singular Dual Plural
1st nâmâhu, -a, -i muddu, -a, -i muddhu, -a, -i
2nd diyu, diya, diyi phuddu, -a, -i phuddu, -a, -i
3rd m., f. and n. dhîyu, -a, -i sîyu, -a, -i uddhîyu, -a, -i

DemonstrativeEdit

  • hishu, -a, -i "this"
  • aru, -a, -i "that"
  • hu, ha, hi "this", "that" and also "the"

These follow the regular nominal declension.

HuEdit

The form hu, ha, hi is used in expressions like hi dhâtati "the (capital) city", hi pâri "the beautiful (things)" = "beauty", hu bhaladyu "the strong one", hi tâsiti "that (what was) said".

Another special use of hu, ha, hi is with nouns and pronouns, as a suffix.

When it is suffixed to nouns, it indicates a special individual of that class. E.g.: dhûr "sun", "a sun", "the sun (which we are talking about)"; but: dhûrhu "THE sun", "our sun". It is used in jokes, e.g. using irony to criticize the performance or the skills of someone; ex.: jîru yitsha ûnanuhu lit.: "he is THE man", intended meaning: "he is an idiot".

With pronouns, it emphasizes the notion expressed by the root. Ex.:

  • wayhu bhasihâwum ji "I did it myself", "It is I who did it" (comp.: bhasihâwum ji "I did it")
  • hishuhu "really this one", "the same one"
  • jîruhu "the same one"
  • diyuhu "really your"
  • ghânuhu "the same one who"

In all these cases, the suffix agrees fully: with the noun or pronoun. Ex.: dhûrhu, dhûraha, dhûrukhuk, dhûrumhum, dhûritshhitsh, dhûrarhar &c.

InterrogativeEdit

  • ghîyu "what"
  • ghânu "who"
  • jâru "which"
  • jûnga "how"
  • hamtiyar "where"
  • jamtuwar "when"

RelativeEdit

  • ghîyu "that"
  • ghânu "who"

IndefiniteEdit

  • hartshannu "some", "any"
  • mâhannu "no", "none"
  • duttu "all", "every"
  • ghattu "each", "every"

NumbersEdit

Cardinal NumbersEdit

  • 0 matti
  • 1 hannu, -a, -i
  • 2 tuwâd
  • 3 daldaH
  • 4 jahdal
  • 5 dhamju
  • 6 sihâddaH
  • 7 dhâdi
  • 8 uhâdu
  • 9 mûphi
  • 10 tâddaH
  • 11 hantâddas
  • 12 tuwâddaH
  • 13 daltâddaH
  • 14 jahdaltâddaH
  • 15 dhamjutâddaH
  • 16 sihâdtâddaH
  • 17 dhâditâddaH
  • 18 uhâdutâddaH
  • 19 mûphitâddaH
  • 20 phamdi
  • 21 phamdi hannu
  • 30 dalmuda
  • 40 jahalmuda
  • 50 dhâmjahmuda
  • 60 sihâdmuda
  • 70 dhâdmuda
  • 80 uhâdmuda
  • 90 mûpmuda
  • 100 dhânu

Ordinal NumbersEdit

Ordinal numbers are regular adjectives.

  • 1 balnihâlu, -a, -i
  • 2 dhîtshamdu, -a, -i
  • 3 daldhîyâlu, -a, -i
  • 4 jahaldu, -a, -i
  • 5 dhamjamdu, -a, -i
  • 6 sihâddhu, -a, -i
  • 7 dhâdânu, -a, -i
  • 8 uhâdapphu, -a, -i
  • 9 mûphimmu, -a, -i
  • 10 tâddhânu, -a, -i

ConjunctionsEdit

CoordinatingEdit

  • ghaya "for"
  • , jay "and"
  • mahan "nor"
  • dhât, naH, bûlan "but"
  • uha "or"
  • imtad "yet"
  • addhâna "so"

CorrelativeEdit

  • hanpuH … hi … "both … and … "
  • uha … uha … "either … or … "
  • mahan … mahan … "neither … nor … "
  • am … dhat … "not … but … "
  • maddhu … danpan … "not only … but also … "

SubordinatingEdit

  • tibuhâd "after"
  • jamdat "although"
  • dhî "if"
  • iddhâd "unless"
  • ghîyutsh "so that"
  • balamda "therefore"
  • habbîsal "in spite of", "despite"
  • ghaya "because"

VerbsEdit

Sample Conjugation: Phâtial "see"Edit

Here is the full conjugation of the verb phât-i-al "see". For other verbs, just change the root (in this case, phât-) and the thematic vowel (-i- in this case).

Active VoiceEdit

IndicativeEdit
PresentEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-ø-yum phât-i-ø-yaH phât-i-ø-tsha
Dual phât-i-ø-nuH phât-i-ø-say phât-i-ø-kin
Plural phât-i-ø-ndaH phât-i-ø-daH phât-i-ø-nga
Present ContinuousEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-nu-wum phât-i-nu-waH phât-i-nu-tsha
Dual phât-i-nu-nuH phât-i-nu-say phât-i-nu-kin
Plural phât-i-nu-ndaH phât-i-nu-daH phât-i-nu-nga
PerfectiveEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-hâw-um phât-i-hâw-aH phât-i-hâw-tsha
Dual phât-i-hâw-nuH phât-i-hâw-say phât-i-hâw-kin
Plural phât-i-hâw-ndaH phât-i-hâw-daH phât-i-hâw-anga
AoristEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-sta-wum phât-i-sta-waH phât-i-sta-tsha
Dual phât-i-sta-nuH phât-i-sta-say phât-i-sta-kin
Plural phât-i-sta-ndaH phât-i-sta-daH phât-i-sta-nga
ImperfectiveEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-pha-wum phât-i-pha-waH phât-i-pha-tsha
Dual phât-i-pha-nuH phât-i-pha-say phât-i-pha-kin
Plural phât-i-pha-ndaH phât-i-pha-daH phât-i-pha-nga
PluperfectEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-la-wum phât-i-la-waH phât-i-la-tsha
Dual phât-i-la-nuH phât-i-la-say phât-i-la-kin
Plural phât-i-la-ndaH phât-i-la-daH phât-i-la-nga
Past ContinuousEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-hî-yum phât-i-hî-yaH phât-i-hî-tsha
Dual phât-i-hî-nuH phât-i-hî-say phât-i-hî-kin
Plural phât-i-hî-ndaH phât-i-hî-daH phât-i-hî-nga
FutureEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lihâ-wum phât-i-lihâ-waH phât-i-lihâ-tsha
Dual phât-i-lihâ-nuH phât-i-lihâ-say phât-i-lihâ-kin
Plural phât-i-lihâ-ndaH phât-i-lihâ-daH phât-i-lihâ-nga
Future PerfectEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lista-wum phât-i-lista-waH phât-i-lista-tsha
Dual phât-i-lista-nuH phât-i-lista-say phât-i-lista-kin
Plural phât-i-lista-ndaH phât-i-lista-daH phât-i-lista-nga
Future ContinuousEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-nulâ-wum phât-i-nulâ-waH phât-i-nulâ-tsha
Dual phât-i-nulâ-nuH phât-i-nulâ-say phât-i-nulâ-kin
Plural phât-i-nulâ-ndaH phât-i-nulâ-daH phât-i-nulâ-nga
SubjunctiveEdit
PresentEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-yâ-wum phât-i-yâ-waH phât-i-yâ-tsha
Dual phât-i-yâ-nuH phât-i-yâ-say phât-i-yâ-kin
Plural phât-i-yâ-ndaH phât-i-yâ-daH phât-i-yâ-nga
Present ContinuousEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-nâ-wum phât-i-nâ-waH phât-i-nâ-tsha
Dual phât-i-nâ-nuH phât-i-nâ-say phât-i-nâ-kin
Plural phât-i-nâ-ndaH phât-i-nâ-daH phât-i-nâ-nga
PerfectiveEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-hâw-um phât-i-hâw-aH phât-i-hâw-tsha
Dual phât-i-hâw-nuH phât-i-hâw-say phât-i-hâw-kin
Plural phât-i-hâw-ndaH phât-i-hâw-daH phât-i-hâw-anga
AoristEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-stâ-wum phât-i-stâ-waH phât-i-stâ-tsha
Dual phât-i-stâ-nuH phât-i-stâ-say phât-i-stâ-kin
Plural phât-i-stâ-ndaH phât-i-stâ-daH phât-i-stâ-nga
ImperfectiveEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-phâ-wum phât-i-phâ-waH phât-i-phâ-tsha
Dual phât-i-phâ-nuH phât-i-phâ-say phât-i-phâ-kin
Plural phât-i-phâ-ndaH phât-i-phâ-daH phât-i-phâ-nga
PluperfectEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-sâ-wum phât-i-sâ-waH phât-i-sâ-tsha
Dual phât-i-sâ-nuH phât-i-sâ-say phât-i-sâ-kin
Plural phât-i-sâ-ndaH phât-i-sâ-daH phât-i-sâ-nga
Past ContinuousEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-hîyâ-wum phât-i-hîyâ-waH phât-i-hîyâ-tsha
Dual phât-i-hîyâ-nuH phât-i-hîyâ-say phât-i-hîyâ-kin
Plural phât-i-hîyâ-ndaH phât-i-hîyâ-daH phât-i-hîyâ-nga
FutureEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lâh-um phât-i-lâh-aH phât-i-lâh-tsha
Dual phât-i-lâh-nuH phât-i-lâh-say phât-i-lâh-kin
Plural phât-i-lâh-ndaH phât-i-lâh-daH phât-i-lâh-anga
Future PerfectEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lâsta-wum phât-i-lâsta-waH phât-i-lâsta-tsha
Dual phât-i-lâsta-nuH phât-i-lâsta-say phât-i-lâsta-kin
Plural phât-i-lâsta-ndaH phât-i-lâsta-daH phât-i-lâsta-nga
Future ContinuousEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-nâl-um phât-i-nâl-aH phât-i-nâl-tsha
Dual phât-i-nâl-nuH phât-i-nâl-say phât-i-nâl-kin
Plural phât-i-nâl-ndaH phât-i-nâl-daH phât-i-nâl-anga
ConditionalEdit
PresentEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lah-um phât-i-lah-aH phât-i-lah-tsha
Dual phât-i-lah-nuH phât-i-lah-say phât-i-lah-kin
Plural phât-i-lah-ndaH phât-i-lah-daH phât-i-lah-anga
Present ContinuousEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lahnu-wum phât-i-lahnu-waH phât-i-lahnu-tsha
Dual phât-i-lahnu-nuH phât-i-lahnu-say phât-i-lahnu-kin
Plural phât-i-lahnu-ndaH phât-i-lahnu-daH phât-i-lahnu-nga
PerfectiveEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lahâwa-wum phât-i-lahâwa-waH phât-i-lahâwa-tsha
Dual phât-i-lahâwa-nuH phât-i-lahâwa-say phât-i-lahâwa-kin
Plural phât-i-lahâwa-ndaH phât-i-lahâwa-daH phât-i-lahâwa-nga
AoristEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lahda-wum phât-i-lahda-waH phât-i-lahda-tsha
Dual phât-i-lahda-nuH phât-i-lahda-say phât-i-lahda-kin
Plural phât-i-lahda-ndaH phât-i-lahda-daH phât-i-lahda-nga
ImperfectiveEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lapha-wum phât-i-lapha-waH phât-i-lapha-tsha
Dual phât-i-lapha-nuH phât-i-lapha-say phât-i-lapha-kin
Plural phât-i-lapha-ndaH phât-i-lapha-daH phât-i-lapha-nga
PluperfectEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lahla-wum phât-i-lahla-waH phât-i-lahla-tsha
Dual phât-i-lahla-nuH phât-i-lahla-say phât-i-lahla-kin
Plural phât-i-lahla-ndaH phât-i-lahla-daH phât-i-lahla-nga
Past ContinuousEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lahî-yum phât-i-lahî-yaH phât-i-lahî-tsha
Dual phât-i-lahî-nuH phât-i-lahî-say phât-i-lahî-kin
Plural phât-i-lahî-ndaH phât-i-lahî-daH phât-i-lahî-nga
FutureEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lahâ-wum phât-i-lahâ-waH phât-i-lahâ-tsha
Dual phât-i-lahâ-nuH phât-i-lahâ-say phât-i-lahâ-kin
Plural phât-i-lahâ-ndaH phât-i-lahâ-daH phât-i-lahâ-nga
Future PerfectEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lislah-um phât-i-lislah-aH phât-i-lislah-tsha
Dual phât-i-lislah-nuH phât-i-lislah-say phât-i-lislah-kin
Plural phât-i-lislah-ndaH phât-i-lislah-daH phât-i-lislah-nga
Future ContinuousEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-nulah-um phât-i-nulah-aH phât-i-nulah-tsha
Dual phât-i-nulah-nuH phât-i-nulah-say phât-i-nulah-kin
Plural phât-i-nulah-ndaH phât-i-nulah-daH phât-i-nulah-nga
ParticipleEdit
PresentEdit
  • phât-i-amdiu
Present ContinuousEdit
  • phât-i-amtu
PerfectiveEdit
  • phât-i-tu
AoristEdit
  • phât-i-stu
ImperfectiveEdit
  • phât-i-ttiu
PluperfectEdit
  • phât-i-lannu
Past ContinuousEdit
  • phât-i-tannu
FutureEdit
  • phât-i-dalu
Future PerfectEdit
  • phât-i-lattu
Future ContinuousEdit
  • phât-i-lanniu
ImperativeEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular - phât-i-ya-aH phât-i-ya-tsha
Dual phât-i-ya-nuH phât-i-ya-say phât-i-ya-kin
Plural phât-i-ya-ndaH phât-i-ya-daH phât-i-ya-nga

Passive VoiceEdit

IndicativeEdit
PresentEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-ø-yân phât-i-ø-yaH phât-i-ø-da
Dual phât-i-ø-nur phât-i-ø-gay phât-i-ø-kaH
Plural phât-i-ø-nay phât-i-ø-day phât-i-ø-yanga
Present ContinuousEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-nu-wân phât-i-nu-waH phât-i-nu-da
Dual phât-i-nu-nur phât-i-nu-gay phât-i-nu-kaH
Plural phât-i-nu-nay phât-i-nu-day phât-i-nu-yanga
PerfectiveEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-hâw-ân phât-i-hâw-aH phât-i-hâw-da
Dual phât-i-hâw-nur phât-i-hâw-gay phât-i-hâw-kaH
Plural phât-i-hâw-nay phât-i-hâw-day phât-i-hâw-yanga
AoristEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-sta-an phât-i-sta-aH phât-i-sta-da
Dual phât-i-sta-nur phât-i-sta-gay phât-i-sta-kaH
Plural phât-i-sta-nay phât-i-sta-day phât-i-sta-yanga
ImperfectiveEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-pha-an phât-i-pha-aH phât-i-pha-da
Dual phât-i-pha-nur phât-i-pha-gay phât-i-pha-kaH
Plural phât-i-pha-nay phât-i-pha-day phât-i-pha-yanga
PluperfectEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-la-an phât-i-la-aH phât-i-la-da
Dual phât-i-la-nur phât-i-la-gay phât-i-la-kaH
Plural phât-i-la-nay phât-i-la-day phât-i-la-yanga
Past ContinuousEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-hî-yan phât-i-hî-yaH phât-i-hî-da
Dual phât-i-hî-nur phât-i-hî-gay phât-i-hî-kaH
Plural phât-i-hî-nay phât-i-hî-day phât-i-hî-yanga
FutureEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lihâ-n phât-i-lihâ-H phât-i-lihâ-da
Dual phât-i-lihâ-nur phât-i-lihâ-gay phât-i-lihâ-kaH
Plural phât-i-lihâ-nay phât-i-lihâ-day phât-i-lihâ-yanga
Future PerfectEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lista-an phât-i-lista-aH phât-i-lista-da
Dual phât-i-lista-nur phât-i-lista-gay phât-i-lista-kaH
Plural phât-i-lista-nay phât-i-lista-day phât-i-lista-yanga
Future ContinuousEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-nulâ-an phât-i-nulâ-aH phât-i-nulâ-da
Dual phât-i-nulâ-nur phât-i-nulâ-gay phât-i-nulâ-kaH
Plural phât-i-nulâ-nay phât-i-nulâ-day phât-i-nulâ-yanga
SubjunctiveEdit
PresentEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-yâ-wan phât-i-yâ-waH phât-i-yâ-da
Dual phât-i-yâ-nur phât-i-yâ-gay phât-i-yâ-kaH
Plural phât-i-yâ-nay phât-i-yâ-day phât-i-yâ-yanga
Present ContinuousEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-nâ-wan phât-i-nâ-waH phât-i-nâ-da
Dual phât-i-nâ-nur phât-i-nâ-gay phât-i-nâ-kaH
Plural phât-i-nâ-nay phât-i-nâ-day phât-i-nâ-yanga
PerfectiveEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-hâw-ân phât-i-hâw-aH phât-i-hâw-da
Dual phât-i-hâw-nur phât-i-hâw-gay phât-i-hâw-kaH
Plural phât-i-hâw-nay phât-i-hâw-day phât-i-hâw-yanga
AoristEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-stâ-wan phât-i-stâ-waH phât-i-stâ-da
Dual phât-i-stâ-nur phât-i-stâ-gay phât-i-stâ-kaH
Plural phât-i-stâ-nay phât-i-stâ-day phât-i-stâ-yanga
ImperfectiveEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-phâ-wan phât-i-phâ-waH phât-i-phâ-da
Dual phât-i-phâ-nur phât-i-phâ-gay phât-i-phâ-kaH
Plural phât-i-phâ-nay phât-i-phâ-day phât-i-phâ-yanga
PluperfectEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-sâ-wan phât-i-sâ-waH phât-i-sâ-da
Dual phât-i-sâ-nur phât-i-sâ-gay phât-i-sâ-kaH
Plural phât-i-sâ-nay phât-i-sâ-day phât-i-sâ-yanga
Past ContinuousEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-hîyâ-wan phât-i-hîyâ-waH phât-i-hîyâ-da
Dual phât-i-hîyâ-nur phât-i-hîyâ-gay phât-i-hîyâ-kaH
Plural phât-i-hîyâ-nay phât-i-hîyâ-day phât-i-hîyâ-yanga
FutureEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lâh-ân phât-i-lâh-aH phât-i-lâh-da
Dual phât-i-lâh-nur phât-i-lâh-gay phât-i-lâh-kaH
Plural phât-i-lâh-nay phât-i-lâh-day phât-i-lâh-yanga
Future PerfectEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lâsta-an phât-i-lâsta-aH phât-i-lâsta-da
Dual phât-i-lâsta-nur phât-i-lâsta-gay phât-i-lâsta-kaH
Plural phât-i-lâsta-nay phât-i-lâsta-day phât-i-lâsta-yanga
Future ContinuousEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-nâl-ân phât-i-nâl-aH phât-i-nâl-da
Dual phât-i-nâl-nur phât-i-nâl-gay phât-i-nâl-kaH
Plural phât-i-nâl-nay phât-i-nâl-day phât-i-nâl-yanga
ConditionalEdit
PresentEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lah-ân phât-i-lah-aH phât-i-lah-da
Dual phât-i-lah-nur phât-i-lah-gay phât-i-lah-kaH
Plural phât-i-lah-nay phât-i-lah-day phât-i-lah-yanga
Present ContinuousEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lahnu-wân phât-i-lahnu-waH phât-i-lahnu-da
Dual phât-i-lahnu-nur phât-i-lahnu-gay phât-i-lahnu-kaH
Plural phât-i-lahnu-nay phât-i-lahnu-day phât-i-lahnu-yanga
PerfectiveEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lahâwa-wan phât-i-lahâwa-waH phât-i-lahâwa-da
Dual phât-i-lahâwa-nur phât-i-lahâwa-gay phât-i-lahâwa-kaH
Plural phât-i-lahâwa-nay phât-i-lahâwa-day phât-i-lahâwa-yanga
AoristEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lahda-wan phât-i-lahda-waH phât-i-lahda-da
Dual phât-i-lahda-nur phât-i-lahda-gay phât-i-lahda-kaH
Plural phât-i-lahda-nay phât-i-lahda-day phât-i-lahda-yanga
ImperfectiveEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lapha-wan phât-i-lapha-waH phât-i-lapha-da
Dual phât-i-lapha-nur phât-i-lapha-gay phât-i-lapha-kaH
Plural phât-i-lapha-nay phât-i-lapha-day phât-i-lapha-yanga
PluperfectEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lahla-wan phât-i-lahla-waH phât-i-lahla-da
Dual phât-i-lahla-nur phât-i-lahla-gay phât-i-lahla-kaH
Plural phât-i-lahla-nay phât-i-lahla-day phât-i-lahla-yanga
Past ContinuousEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lahî-yân phât-i-lahî-yalis phât-i-lahî-da
Dual phât-i-lahî-nur phât-i-lahî-gay phât-i-lahî-kaH
Plural phât-i-lahî-nay phât-i-lahî-day phât-i-lahî-yanga
FutureEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lahâ-wan phât-i-lahâ-waH phât-i-lahâ-da
Dual phât-i-lahâ-nur phât-i-lahâ-gay phât-i-lahâ-kaH
Plural phât-i-lahâ-nay phât-i-lahâ-day phât-i-lahâ-yanga
Future PerfectEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-lislah-ân phât-i-lislah-aH phât-i-lislah-da
Dual phât-i-lislah-nur phât-i-lislah-gay phât-i-lislah-kaH
Plural phât-i-lislah-nay phât-i-lislah-day phât-i-lislah-yanga
Future ContinuousEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular phât-i-nulah-ân phât-i-nulah-aH phât-i-nulah-da
Dual phât-i-nulah-nur phât-i-nulah-gay phât-i-nulah-kaH
Plural phât-i-nulah-nay phât-i-nulah-day phât-i-nulah-yanga
ParticipleEdit
PresentEdit
  • phât-i-yawu
Present ContinuousEdit
  • phât-i-mtayu
PerfectiveEdit
  • phât-i-tayu
AoristEdit
  • phât-i-stayu
ImperfectiveEdit
  • phât-i-ttayu
PluperfectEdit
  • phât-i-layu
Past ContinuousEdit
  • phât-i-tayu
FutureEdit
  • phât-i-dayu
Future PerfectEdit
  • phât-i-ltayu
Future ContinuousEdit
  • phât-i-lnayu
ImperativeEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular - phât-i-ya-aH phât-i-ya-da
Dual phât-i-ya-nur phât-i-ya-gay phât-i-ya-kaH
Plural phât-i-ya-nay phât-i-ya-day phât-i-ya-yanga

VocabularyEdit

Animic adjectives and nounsEdit

A typical feature of Bovon are the so-called "animic" adjectives. These are adjectives derived from the names of animals, representing distinctive characteristics - actual or assumed - of these animals. The most common qualities are represented by animic adjectives.

These adjectives produce abstract nouns representing the attribute in question. Some examples are given in the following table.

Animal Similar Earth equivalent Attribute Animic Adjective Meaning Noun Meaning
rihawu lion fierceness arhawânu "fierce" arhawâtati "fierceness"
julasha owl intelligence, wisdom julashânu "wise" julashâmsa "wisdom"
labuha fox cleverness, cunning albuhânu "smart", "clever", "cunning" albuhânisa "smartness", "cleverness", "cunning"
jâdda cheetah speed jâddayu fast jâddayamsa speed
abbi bee; ant hard work abbiniyu dedicated; working hard abbinitati dedication; hard work
jahu dog; cat loyalty jahîyu, jahalîyu loyal jahîyisa, jahalîyamsa loyalty
hallapa vulture dirt hLpanuyu dirty, filthy hLpanutati dirt, filth
sabbu toad, frog tranquility, calmness sabbînu calm, serene; peacefull sabbînisa calmness, serenity, tranquility
bimpa pigeon hope bampattu hopefull bampattamsa hopefullness; hope
jupla snake treason jupalnayu traitor; unfaithful jupalnasâ treason, betrayal
ladhu bear strength ladhishu "strong" ladhishâ "strength"
parhyâ whale big size prihânu "large" prihânisa "largeness", "(big) size"
hatshâ eagle nobleness hatshâsu "noble" 1) hatshâstati; 2) hatshâsisa 1) "nobleness"; 2) "nobility"

Alternative NumbersEdit

The cardinal numbers given above are the standard numeral forms used in Bovonian. However, there is another series of words carrying the notion of number. Although not used for counting (e.g., for saying "two days" or "five eggs"), they are used primarily in lists or in situations in which the number has some special meaning. The most common forms are as follows (there are more than one form for some numbers):

Number Word Original Meaning
1 hamajâm <a mythical animal with a single horn>
2 libadi "repetition"
2 balli "pair"
2 tupal "double"
2 rahâyis "the eyes"
3 balbhîd "perfection"
4 apphud "grandparents"
5 tajdarud "fingertips"
5 amâhad "fingernails"
6 buritshali "the thumb" (i.e., sixth finger)
7 astili "the star"
8 ballapphud "grandgrandparents"
9 istulmâhi "the strange one"
10 jinbardu "complete"

Some examples:

  • Way hamajâm "I am number one", "I am the first" (in a competition; in a queue; the first son in a family)
  • Irtâhi hamajâm "Today is the first (day of the month)"
  • Jiliyum balbhîd "I want three" (units of something)
  • DumdastandaH balbhîd "We tried three (times)"
  • Jabâdaru astili "Chapter seven"
  • Dhisahu apphud "Section four"

Literary language has alternative forms for numbers up to the thousands. These are freely used mainly in poetry. Common spoken language keeps alternative forms only for the first ten numbers, although alternatives for larger numbers are not rare, in the case of numbers with some special use (e.g. 20, which is a common counting unit, or 50, which Bovonians considered a special age in the life of a person).


  • Swadesh List: Here we give the Swadesh List for Classical Bovonian.

SampleEdit

  • "Duttud ûnanud maddhiyanga râphlyudd, tâkmâtatum hî tâlihâdunaH. DzhîragaH lasawa hî gamsâmsâha, ghay tiphinga ashâlu hannu uhadluk ishpâlâdubba hulnamtatik."
    • ("All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.")

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