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NounsEdit

DefinitenessEdit

Definiteness is marked with the suffix with a reduced form of the stem. Examples:

  • lûpûs "house"
  • lûps-â "the house"
  • lûps.ikh "houses"
  • lûps.ikh-â "the houses"

NumberEdit

Plural form of nouns have a suffix -(i)kh. Many nouns have a simplified stem in the plural. E.g.:

  • lûpûs "house" - lûps.ikh "houses"
  • siw "animal" - siw.ikh "animals"
  • suyas "aunt" - suys.ikh "aunts"
  • mayadû "bank" - maydû.kh "banks"
  • lâbah "hospital" - lâbh.ikh "hospitals"
  • miw "knight" - miw.ikh "knights"
  • wapâral "arm" - wapârl.ikh "arms"
  • wuwik "star" - wiwk.ikh "stars"

CaseEdit

There is no case indication in nouns. The following prepositions are used:

  • Accusative: a
  • Dative: me
  • Genitive: in
  • Locative: ser
  • Instrumental: les
  • Ablative: shew

Ex.:

  • Nominative: lûpûs "a house"
  • Accusative: a lûpûs "a house"
  • Dative: me lûpûs "to a house"
  • Genitive: in lûpûs "of a house"
  • Locative: ser lûpûs "in a house"
  • Instrumental: les lûpûs "with a house"
  • Ablative: shew lûpûs "from a house"
  • Nominative: lûpûs-â "the house"
  • Accusative: a lûps-â "the house"
  • Dative: me lûps-â "to the house"
  • Genitive: in lûps-â "of the house"
  • Locative: ser lûps-â "in the house"
  • Instrumental: les lûps-â "with the house"
  • Ablative: shew lûps-â "from the house"

GenderEdit

Feminine is formed with the suffix -in. It is used to distinguish gender in names of living beings (animals, professions &c.). E.g.:

  • yashnân "teacher" (man) - yashnân.in "teacher" (woman) -
  • apkap "(an animal like an) ox" - apkap.in "(an animal like a) cow"

Plural is made from the original (masculine) noun:

  • yashnân.ikh "teachers" (men) - yashnân.ikh.in "teachers" (women) -
  • apkap.ikh "(animals like) oxen" - apkap.ikh.in "(animals like) cows"

ExamplesEdit

  • naspar "a hand"
  • naspr.ikh "hants"
  • naspr-â "the hand"
  • naspr.ikh-â "the hants"
  • ser naspr-â "in the hand"
  • ser naspr.ikh-â "in the hants"
  • les naspr-â "with the hand"
  • les naspr.ikh-â "with the hants"
  • wânal "a chief"
  • wânl.ikh "chiefs"
  • wânl-â "the chief"
  • wânl.ikh-â "the chiefs"
  • in wânl-â "of the chief"
  • in wânl.ikh-â "of the chief"
  • me wânl-â "to the chief"
  • ser lûpûs-â "in the house"


AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives do not agree with nouns. E.g.:

  • wânal masnip "a brave chief"
  • wânl.ikh masnip "brave chiefs"
  • wânl-â masnip "the brave chief"
  • wânl.ikh-â masnip "the brave chiefs"
  • in wânl-â masnip "of the brave chief"
  • in wânl.ikh-â masnip "of the brave chief"
  • me wânl-â masnip "to the brave chief"

When used as nouns, adjectives have full nominal declension:

  • masnip "(a) brave one"
  • masnp.ikh "brave ones"
  • masnp-â "the brave one"
  • masnp.ikh-â "the brave ones"
  • in masnp-â "the brave one"
  • in masnp.ikh-â "the brave ones"
  • me masnp-â "to the brave one"

ComparisonEdit

Comparative of superiority is made with the suffix -sây:

  • masnip "brave" - masnip-sây "braver"
  • wûdim "good" - wûdim-sây "better"

Relative Superlative is made with the suffix -mâx:

  • masnip "brave" - masnip-mâx "the bravest"
  • wûdim "good" - wûdim-mâx "the best"

Absolute Superlative is made with the prefix nebi-:

  • masnip "brave" - neb-masnip "very brave"
  • wûdim "good" - neb-wûdim "very good"

PronounsEdit

PersonalEdit

  • 1st person singular: kuk
  • 2nd person singular: yâs
  • 3rd person sing. m.: lan
  • 3rd person sing. f.: nay
  • 1st person plural: mak
  • 2nd person plural: tam
  • 3rd person plural: lâk

PossessiveEdit

Possessive pronouns consist of a suffix, that are added to the definite form of the noun.

  • 1st person singular: -ksh
  • 2nd person singular: -d
  • 3rd person singular.: -l
  • 1st person plural: -m
  • 2nd person plural: -b
  • 3rd person plural: -t

Examples:

  • lûps-â-ksh "my house"
  • lûps-â-d "your house"
  • lûps.ikh-â-t "their houses"

Sometimes the personal pronouns is prefixed to the noun:

  • kuk-lûps-â-ksh "my house"
  • yâs-lûps-â-d "your house"

NumbersEdit

CardinalEdit

  • 0: lan
  • 1: kiyân
  • 2: law
  • 3: yamam
  • 4: nûsxir
  • 5: nuhgis
  • 6: purdip
  • 7: palla
  • 8: muxûp
  • 9: luyam
  • 10: yashkunk
  • 11: yashkunkân
  • 12: yashkunlaw
  • 13: yashkunamam
  • 14: yashkunnûsir
  • 15: yashkunnuhgis
  • 16: yashkunpurdip
  • 17: yashkunballa
  • 18: yashkunmuxûp
  • 19: yashkunluyam
  • 20: yatsî
  • 30: yammunk
  • 40: nûsrunk
  • 50: nukshunk
  • 60: purpunk
  • 70: pallunk
  • 80: muxpunk
  • 90: luymunk
  • 100: kipnsih
  • 200: law-kipnsih
  • 1000: yâtsir
  • 1234: yâtsir law-kipnsih yammunk nûsxir

OrdinalEdit

Ordinal numbers are built with the ending -(y)îs; some numbers have an irregular form:

  • 1st: kshânîs
  • 2nd: lawayîs
  • 3rd: yâyamîs
  • 4th: nûsxirîs
  • 5th: nuhkshîs

&c.

VerbsEdit

ConceptsEdit

There are no auxiliary verbs or periphrastic constructions, all verbal expressions are made up with a single word.

Infixes are used to create derivational roots. Aspect is indicated by means of infixes, prefixes or root alteration (mutation). Time is indicated by means of suffixes.

For persons, subject is indicated by suffixes, while direct objects are indicated by prefixes.

DerivationEdit

A verb root may have the following derivational stems:

  • -in-: Transitiveness. Changes an intransitive verb to a transitive one. Ex.: lupis "lie down", lupinis "lay (something) down"
  • -ash-: Passiveness. Changes an active to a passive verb. Ex.: pakhuyrûk "see", pakashhuyrûk "be seen"
  • -al-: Repetition. Indicates that the action is repeated several times. Ex.: pâwî "shout", pâwalî "shout (repeatedly)"
  • -at-: Causative. Changes a normal verb to a causative verb. Ex.: pakhuyrûk "see", pakathuyrûk "show"
  • -ak- (after the first consonant): Potentiality. Indicates ability ("can"). Ex.: pakhuyrûk "see", pakakhuyrûk "be able to see", pakakathuyrûk "be able to show"
  • -ur- (before the last vowel): Obligation. Like English "must", "should". Ex.: lupis "lie down", lupuris "must lie down", pakathuyrurûk "must show"
  • -ay-: Volitive. Translated by "want", "wish". Ex.: pakhuyrûk "see", pakhuyayrûk "want to see",
  • Intensive: indicated by means of a repetition of a consonant or a whole syllable of the root. Ex.: pâwî "shout", pâwâwî "shout (many times or with great strength)"
  • -âni: Limitative. Indicates that the action is executed in a limited or tentative way. Root is generally shortened. Ex.: pakhuyrûk "see", pahrawâni "try to see", "take a look"

AspectEdit

  • a-...-a: Aorist. Internal vowels are generally lost. Ex.: lupis "lie down", aor. alpsa; lupinis "lay (something) down", aor. alpinsa
  • ...-un-...-â: Perfective. Ex.: lupis "lie down", perf. lupunisâ

TimeEdit

Present time is not marked. Past and future are indicated as follows:

  • -ax: Near (pragmatical) Past.
  • -aw: Remote (narrative) Past.
  • -um: Near Future.
  • -as: Remote Future.

PersonEdit

Subject is indicated by means of suffixes.

  • 1st person singular: -aksh
  • 2nd person singular: -ad
  • 3rd person singular: -al
  • 1st person plural: -im
  • 2nd person plural: -ib
  • 3rd person plural: -it

Direct Object is indicated by prefixes:

  • 1st person singular: k(a)-
  • 2nd person singular: y(a)-
  • 3rd person sing. m.: l(a)-
  • 3rd person sing. f.: p(a)-
  • 1st person plural: m(i)-
  • 2nd person plural: b(i)-
  • 3rd person plural: t(i)-

ExamplesEdit

pakhuyrûk "see"

Present TenseEdit

  • 1st person singular: pakhuyrûkaksh
  • 2nd person singular: pakhuyrûkad
  • 3rd person singular.: pakhuyrûkal
  • 1st person plural: pakhuyrûkim
  • 2nd person plural: pakhuyrûkib
  • 3rd person plural: pakhuyrûkit

Aorist Past TenseEdit

  • 1st person singular: afhuyrukaxaksh
  • 2nd person singular: afhuyrukaxad
  • 3rd person singular: afhuyrukaxal
  • 1st person plural: afhuyrukaxim
  • 2nd person plural: afhuyrukaxib
  • 3rd person plural: afhuyrukaxit

Perfect Past TenseEdit

  • 1st person singular: pakhunrûkâxaksh
  • 2nd person singular: pakhunrûkâxad
  • 3rd person singular: pakhunrûkâxal
  • 1st person plural: pakhunrûkâxim
  • 2nd person plural: pakhunrûkâxib
  • 3rd person plural: pakhunrûkâxit

Future TenseEdit

  • 1st person singular: pakhuyrûkumaksh
  • 2nd person singular: pakhuyrûkumad
  • 3rd person singular: pakhuyrûkumal
  • 1st person plural: pakhuyrûkumim
  • 2nd person plural: pakhuyrûkumib
  • 3rd person plural: pakhuyrûkumit

SampleEdit

  • Sinlumtû.k-â mad mashunupâ-it napgimrû, shew gurkûstûn yun shew husisnâs.ikh. Lâk gawarunshpâ-it les dîwar yun les wûstâs, yun bûnuduran-it me kuhgay.k-â ser kîfsûshkan in shâshkin.
    • ("All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towarts one another in a spirit of brotherhood.")

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