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NounsEdit

DefinitenessEdit

Definiteness is marked with the prefix (a)s- in both singular and plural. Indefiniteness is marked by the suffix -(y)â. Examples:

  • lûfûç "house"
  • as-lûfûç "the house"
  • lûfûð-â "a house"
  • lûmbûð.ik "houses"
  • as-lûmbûð.ik "the houses"
  • lûmbûð.ik-â "(some) houses"

NumberEdit

Plural form of nouns have an infix -m- and a suffix -(i)k. E.g.:

  • lûfûç "house" - lûmbûð.ik "houses"
  • siwu "animal" - simu.k "animals"
  • suyas "aunt" - suymas.ik "aunts"
  • mayadû "bank" - maymadû.k "banks"
  • lâbah "hospital" - lâmbah.ik "hospitals"
  • miwi "knight" - mimi.k "knights"
  • wafârla "arm" - wamfârla.k "arms"
  • wuwi´a "star" - wumi´a.k "stars"

The sequence my is changed to ym, while mw, nm and mn are simplified to m.

CaseEdit

The following endings are used:

  • Accusative: -(u)w
  • Dative: -t(a)
  • Genitive: -(i)s
  • Locative: -l(a)
  • Instrumental: -m(a)

Accusative ending is generally dropped.

These endings come before the indefinite ending:

  • Indefinite:
    • Nominative: lûfûð-â "a house"
    • Accusative: 'lûfûð(-uw)-â "a house"
    • Dative: 'lûfûç-t-â "to a house"
    • Genitive: 'lûfûð-is-â "of a house"
    • Locative: 'lûfûð-l-â "in a house"
    • Instrumental: 'lûfûð-m-â "with a house"
  • Definite:
    • Accusative: as-lûfûð-uw
    • Dative: as-lûfûç-ta
    • Genitive: as-lûfûð-is
    • Locative: as-lûfûð-la
    • Instrumental: as-lûfûð-ma

GenderEdit

Feminine is formed with the suffix -(y)a. It is used to distinguish gender in names of living beings (animals, professions &c.). E.g.:

  • yahshasnân "teacher" (man) - yahshasann.a "teacher" (woman) -
  • ahfufkaf "(an animal like an) ox" - ahfufakf.a "(an animal like a) cow"

Plural is made regularly from the feminine form:

  • yahshasann.a "teacher" (woman) - yahshasmann.a.k "teachers" (women) -
  • ahfufakf.a "(an animal like a) cow" - ahfufakmf.ak "(animals like) cows"

Case endings are applied after the feminine ending:

  • Sing.:
    • Accusative: yahshasann.a(-w)
    • Dative: yahshasann.a-t
    • Genitive: yahshasann.a-s
    • Locative: yahshasann.a-l
    • Instrumental: yahshasann.a-m
  • Plural:
    • Accusative: yahshasmann.a.k(-uw)
    • Dative: yahshasmann.a.k-ta
    • Genitive: yahshasmann.a.k-(i)s
    • Locative: yahshasmann.a.k-la
    • Instrumental: yahshasmann.a.k-ma

ExamplesEdit

  • naçrif-â "a hand"
  • naçmarf.ik-â "hands"
  • as-naçrif "the hand"
  • as-naçmarf.ik "the hands"
  • as-naçrif-la "in the hand"
  • as-naçmarf.ik-la "in the hands"
  • as-naçrif-ma "with the hand"
  • as-naçmarf.ik-ma "with the hands"
  • wânli-yâ "a chief"
  • wâmli.k-â "chiefs"
  • as-wânli "the chief"
  • as-wâmli.k "the chiefs"
  • as-wânli-s "of the chief"
  • as-wâmli.k-(i)s "of the chiefs"
  • as-wânli-t "to the chief"
  • as-lûfûð-la "in the house"


AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives agree completely with nouns in definiteness, gender, number and case. E.g.:

  • wânli-yâ mahmuçnif-â "a brave chief"
  • wâmli.k-â mahmuçmif.ik-â "brave chiefs"
  • as-wânli s-mahmuçnif "the brave chief"
  • as-wâmli.k as-mahmuçmif.ik "the brave chiefs"
  • as-wânli-s as-mahmuçnif-(i)s "of the brave chief"
  • as-wâmli.k-(i)s as-mahmuçmif.ik-(i)s "of the brave chiefs"
  • as-wânli-t as-mahmuçnif-ta "to the brave chief"

When used as nouns, adjectives also have full nominal declension:

  • mahmuçnif "(a) brave one"
  • mahmuçmif.ik "brave ones"
  • as-mahmuçnif "the brave one"
  • as-mahmuçmif.ik "the brave ones"
  • as-mahmuçnif-(i)s "of the brave one"
  • as-mahmuçmif.ik-(i)s "of the brave ones"
  • as-mahmuçnif-ta "to the brave one"

ComparisonEdit

Comparative of superiority is made with the suffix -âh and generally some alteration in the structure of the last syllables:

  • mahmuçnif "brave" - mahmuçanf-âh "braver"
  • wûðim "good" - wûðm-âh "better"

Relative Superlative is made with the infix -ây(a)- and the definite prefix:

  • mahmuçnif "brave" - as-mahmçâyanif "the bravest"
  • wûðim "good" - as-wûðâyim "the best"

Absolute Superlative is made with the sufix -îna:

  • mahmuçnif "brave" - mahmuçnif-îna "very brave"
  • wûðim "good" - wûðm-îna "very good"

PronounsEdit

PersonalEdit

The first form given is the most common. Alternative forms are reductions or emphatic forms.

  • 1st person singular: suk
  • 2nd person singular: yâw(a)
  • 3rd person sing. m.: lây(a)
  • 3rd person sing. f.: fây(a)
  • 1st person plural: ma´ûm
  • 2nd person plural: çamûm
  • 3rd person pl.: lahûm

PossessiveEdit

Possessive pronouns consist of a prefix and a suffix, that are added to the definite form of the noun.

  • 1st person singular: k-...(w)us
  • 2nd person singular: d-...(y)ay
  • 3rd person sing. m.: l-...(a)l
  • 3rd person sing. f.: f-...(a)f
  • 1st person plural: m-...(u)m
  • 2nd person plural: ç-...(a)ç
  • 3rd person pl.: t-...(w)ût

Examples:

  • k.as-lûfûð-us "my house"
  • d.as-lûfûð-ay "your house"
  • t.as-lûmbûð.ik-ût "their houses"

Case endings come after possessive suffixes:

  • k.as-lûfûð-us.la "in my house"
  • d.as-lûfûð-ay.(i)s "from/of your house"
  • k.as-naçmarf.ik-us.ma "with my hands"

NumbersEdit

CardinalEdit

  • 0: layn
  • 1: ´içân
  • 2: law(a)
  • 3: yâyam
  • 4: nûsrîr
  • 5: giçnû
  • 6: rissâs
  • 7: falla
  • 8: muxûf
  • 9: luyam
  • 10: yasûç
  • 11: yasiçân
  • 12: yaslaw(u)n
  • 13: yasâymun
  • 14: yasnûsrun
  • 15: yasnuhçûn
  • 16: yasfurisun
  • 17: yasfala´un
  • 18: yasmuxûfun
  • 19: yasluyamun
  • 20: yaduçî
  • 30: tufsûnnân
  • 40: nûçâhkîr
  • 50: numâhfar
  • 60: wumayruç
  • 70: fahgâhan
  • 80: kusihûç
  • 90: duyafshû
  • 100: sahtâmûh
  • 200: law-sahtâmûh
  • 1000: yâhtaçir
  • 1234: yâhtaçir law-sahtâmûh tufsûnnân nûsrîr

OrdinalEdit

Ordinal numbers are built with the ending -(y)îç:

  • 1st: ´içânîç
  • 2nd: lawîç
  • 3rd: yâymîç
  • 4th: nûsrîrîç
  • 5th: giçnûyîç

&c.

VerbsEdit

ConceptsEdit

Arishian verbs show a number of derivational forms that express notions like transitivity, cause, passiveness and other ideas conceived in English by means of modal verbs.

There are no auxiliary verbs or periphrastic constructions, all verbal expressions are made up with a single word.

Infixes are used to create derivational roots. Aspect is indicated by means of infixes, prefixes or root alteration (mutation). Time is indicated by means of suffixes.

Indication of person is rather complex. It depends on verb transitivity and on the existance and nature of direct objects.

DerivationEdit

A verb root may have the following derivational stems:

  • '-in-: Causative; Transitiveness. Changes an intransitive verb to a transitive one. Ex.: lufis "lie down", lufinis "lay (something) down"; fa´huyrû´ "see", fa´huyinrû´ "show"
  • ash-: Passiveness. Changes an active to a passive verb. Ex.: fa´huyrû´ "see", ashfi´huyrû´ "be seen"
  • -al-: Repetition. Indicates that the action is repeated several times. Ex.: fâwî "shout", fâwalî "shout (repeatedly)"
  • -ak- (after the first consonant): Potentiality. Indicates ability ("can"). Ex.: fa´huyrû´ "see", faka´huyrû´ "be able to see", faka´huyinrû´ "be able to show"
  • -war- (before the last vowel): Obligation. Like English "must", "should". Ex.: lufis "lie down", lufaris "must lie down", fa´huyrarû´ "must see", fa´huyrinarû´ "must show"
  • -(y)î(y)-: Volitive. Translated by "want", "wish". Syllable structure is altered in most verbs. Ex.: fa´huyrû´ "see", fa´hîyurû "want to see"; lufis "lie down", lufîyis "want to lie down"; fâwî "shout", fâyîwî "want to shout"; ashfi´huyrû´ "be seen", ashfi´hîyirû´ "want to be seen"
  • Intensive: indicated by means of a repetition of a consonant or a whole syllable of the root, as well as the suffix -(i)n. Ex.: fâwî "shout", fâwâwîn "shout (many times or with great strength)"; luffissin "lie down and don´t move". Many verbs use an intensive form without any special meaning or to signal a special use of the verb.
  • -âni: Limitative. Indicates that the action is executed in a limited or tentative way. Root is generally shortened. Ex.: fa´huyrû´ "see", fahruwâni "try to see", "take a look"; lufsâni "lie down a little bit". Many verbs use an intensive form without any special meaning or to signal a special use of the verb.

AspectEdit

The aspects indicated in an Arish verb are the following:

  • a-...-a: Aorist. Internal vowels are generally lost. Ex.: lufis "lie down", aor. alfsa; lufinis "lay (something) down", aor. alfinsa
  • i-...-da-...: Perfective. Ex.: lufis "lie down", perf. ildafis
  • kas-...-n: Inchoative. Ex.: mîwu "speak", kasmîwun "start to speak"

TimeEdit

Both present and near past are not marked at all. Remote past and future are indicated as follows:

  • -ûx: Remote (narrative) Past.
  • -wam: Future.

PersonEdit

Intransitive VerbsEdit

Subject for intransitive verbs is indicated by means of suffixes.

  • 1st person singular: -(a)s
  • 2nd person singular: -(a)y
  • 3rd person sing. m.: -(a)l
  • 3rd person sing. f.: -(a)f
  • 1st person plural: -(y)im
  • 2nd person plural: -(y)ib
  • 3rd person plural: -(y)it

Transitive VerbsEdit

For Transitive verbs, the subject is indicated by means of a prefix, while direct ocbjects are indicated by meas of suffixes.

SubjectEdit
  • 1st person singular: k(a)-
  • 2nd person singular: d(a)-
  • 3rd person sing. m.: l(a)-
  • 3rd person sing. f.: f(a)-
  • 1st person plural: m(i)-
  • 2nd person plural: ç(i)-
  • 3rd person plural: t(i)-
Direct ObjectEdit
  • 1st person singular: -(u)k
  • 2nd person singular: -(u)d
  • 3rd person sing. m.: -(u)l
  • 3rd person sing. f.: -(u)f
  • 1st person plural: -(u)m
  • 2nd person plural: -(u)b
  • 3rd person plural: -(u)t

ExamplesEdit

fa´huyrû´ "see"

IntransitiveEdit

Present/Past ImperfectEdit
  • 1st person singular: fa´huyrû´as
  • 2nd person singular: fa´huyrû´ay
  • 3rd person sing. m.: fa´huyrû´al
  • 3rd person sing. f.: fa´huyrû´af
  • 1st person plural: fa´huyrû´im
  • 2nd person plural: fa´huyrû´ib
  • 3rd person plural: fa´huyrû´it
AoristEdit
  • 1st person singular: afhuyras
  • 2nd person singular: afhuyray
  • 3rd person sing. m.: afhuyral
  • 3rd person sing. f.: afhuyraf
  • 1st person plural: afhuyrayim
  • 2nd person plural: afhuyrayib
  • 3rd person plural: afhuyrayit
PerfectEdit
  • 1st person singular: ifda´ihrû´as
  • 2nd person singular: ifda´ihrû´ay
  • 3rd person sing. m.: ifda´ihrû´al
  • 3rd person sing. f.: ifda´ihrû´af
  • 1st person plural: ifda´ihrû´im
  • 2nd person plural: ifda´ihrû´ib
  • 3rd person plural: ifda´ihrû´it
Future TenseEdit
  • 1st person singular: fa´huyrû´wam(a)s
  • 2nd person singular: fa´huyrû´wamay
  • 3rd person sing. m.: fa´huyrû´wamal
  • 3rd person sing. f.: fa´huyrû´wamaf
  • 1st person plural: fa´huyrû´wamim
  • 2nd person plural: fa´huyrû´wamib
  • 3rd person plural: fa´huyrû´wamit

TransitiveEdit

Present/Past ImperfectEdit
  • 1st person singular: kafa´huyrû´(ul)
  • 2nd person singular: yafa´huyrû´(ul)
  • 3rd person sing. m.: lafa´huyrû´(ul)
  • 3rd person sing. f.: fafa´huyrû´(ul)
  • 1st person plural: mifa´huyrû´(ul)
  • 2nd person plural: çifa´huyrû´(ul)
  • 3rd person plural: tifa´huyrû´(ul)
AoristEdit
  • 1st person singular: kafhuyra(l)
  • 2nd person singular: yafhuyra(l)
  • 3rd person sing. m.: lafhuyra(l)
  • 3rd person sing. f.: fafhuyra(l)
  • 1st person plural: mafhuyra(l)
  • 2nd person plural: çafhuyra(l)
  • 3rd person plural: tafhuyra(l)
PerfectEdit
  • 1st person singular: kifda´ihrû´(ul)
  • 2nd person singular: yifda´ihrû´(ul)
  • 3rd person sing. m.: lifda´ihrû´(ul)
  • 3rd person sing. f.: fifda´ihrû´(ul)
  • 1st person plural: mifda´ihrû´(ul)
  • 2nd person plural: çifda´ihrû´(ul)
  • 3rd person plural: tifda´ihrû´(ul)
Future TenseEdit
  • 1st person singular: kafa´huyrû´wam(ul)
  • 2nd person singular: yafa´huyrû´wam(ul)
  • 3rd person sing. m.: lafa´huyrû´wam(ul)
  • 3rd person sing. f.: fafa´huyrû´wam(ul)
  • 1st person plural: mifa´huyrû´wam(ul)
  • 2nd person plural: çifa´huyrû´wam(ul)
  • 3rd person plural: tifa´huyrû´wam(ul)

SampleEdit

  • Aç-çinlumçû.k as-mamdu.k imdashubu-t nafmgimrû.k, gurkûçdûn-la ma huswismâç.ik-la. Lahûm igawarshaf-it dîwar-la ma wûsdâð-la, ma bûnudaran-it as-´uhgayma.k-ta 'îfsûçkan-l-â shâçinu-s.
    • ("All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.")

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