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CharacteristicsEdit

Classical Tláymyts is the first form of Tláymyts that became important as a lingua franca in more than the half part of the planet Drion.

Different from the great variety of forms present in Old Tláymyts, mainly in verbs, the classical language, being used as a means of education, literature and commerce, repudiated most variant forms to establish a standard language. One consequence of this standardization is that many dialect forms, which were widely used, were accepted together with forms of other dialects, giving rise to a number of oddities in morphology such as plural of nouns and irregular verb forms.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

p t k
b d g
f
v
s sh z zh
m n r l
y w

VowelsEdit

Vowels are:

a
e (open) ê (closed)
i
o
u


MorphologyEdit

ArticlesEdit

Classical Tláymyts used the old demonstrative u, e as a definite article. This use became less common as the language went its way toward Modern Tláymyts.

The indefinite article was the same as the number one (on).

NounsEdit

Plural of nouns is in -(i)z. There are some irregularities according to the original ending of the word.

  1. Words ending in a vowel or in -m add -z:
    • venêrêe "family", pl. venêrêez
    • zêteti "town", pl. zêtetiz
    • êlnem "sister", pl. êlnemz
  2. Words ending in -l add -iz:
    • norêal "woman", pl. norêaliz
  3. Some words ending in -z change this to -siz, others remain unchanged:
    • beêz "country", pl. beêsiz
    • rebêz "pencil", pl. rebêz
  4. Words ending in -n change -n to -mz:
    • unan "man", pl. unamz
  5. Words ending in -er change this to -iaz:
    • vêmer "ending", pl. vêmiaz
  6. Words ending in -êr change this to -êz:
    • pelêr "barrel", pl. pelêz
  7. Some masculine words ending in -eu just add -z regularly:
    • êlneu "brother", pl. êlneuz
    • ulkeu "organ", pl. ulkeuz
  8. Feminine words and some masculine words ending in -eu change this to -uiz:
    • vlezeu "fraction", pl. vlezuiz
    • pereu "balloon", pl. peruiz
  9. Some other masculine words ending in -eu change this to -eiz:
    • geu "dog", pl. geiz
    • gebêdeu "captain", pl. gebêdeiz


AdjectivesEdit

There are two types of adjectives, those ending in -u for masculine and -e for feminine, and those ending in -i for both genders. Plural follows the same rules as for nouns.

  • mufu, mufe "new", "young", pl. mufuz, mufez
  • klemti "great", pl. klemtiz
  • vêmer "final", pl. vêmiaz

Comparative FormEdit

SuperiorityEdit

Only a small number of adjectives have the old superlative form ending in -êul. These forms are mostly irregular:

  • pun "good", comp. nirêul
  • liun, ner "bad, comp. bêul
  • bigamu "small", comp. namul
  • klemti "large", comp. niaul or nieêul

All other adjectives make the comparative form with the adverb neêz or niaz:

  • mufu "new", comp. neêz mufu, niaz mufu
EqualityEdit
InferiorityEdit

SuperlativeEdit

The relative superlative is built with the form of comparative of superiority together with the definite article:

  • pun "good", relative superl. u nirêul
  • liun, ner "bad", relative superl. u bêul
  • bigamu "small", relative superl. u namul
  • klemti "large", relative superl. u niaul or u nieêul
  • mufu "new", relative superl. u neêz mufu, u niaz mufu

The absolute superlative is built with the suffix -êzên-, -êrên- or -alên-. Ex.:

  • klemti "large", klemtêzênu "very large"
  • mufu "new", mupfêzênu "very new"
  • pun "good", punêzênu "very best"
  • vezêr "easy", vezêrênu "very easy"
  • zirapli "famous", ziripalênu "very famous"

PronounsEdit

PersonalEdit

Person Singular Plural
1st io muz
2nd do fuz
3rd m. iri iriz
3rd f. are arez


1st and 2nd Person PronunsEdit
1st Person 2nd Person
Number Singular Plural
Nominative io muz
Accusative/Dative ni muz
Number Singular Plural
Nominative do fuz
Accusative/Dative di fuz

PossessiveEdit

Possessive pronouns are declined like any other adjective.

Person Singular Dual Plural
1st nio, nêmêe muzu, -e
2nd dio, doe fuzu, -e
3rd m., f. and n. zio, zoe zio, zoe

DemonstrativeEdit

  • izi, aze "this" (very near)
  • izdi, azde "this" (not so near)
  • egiri, egare "that" (far)

InterrogativeEdit

  • gi "what"
  • gan "who"
  • goer "which"
  • gunu "how"
  • umti "where"
  • goemtu "when"

RelativeEdit

  • gi "that"
  • gan "who"

IndefiniteEdit

  • erkon "some", "any"
  • mamêon "no", "none"
  • dutu "all", "every"
  • gete (not declined) "each", "every"

NumbersEdit

Cardinal NumbersEdit

  • 0 salu
  • 1 on, -e
  • 2 tuêz, toez
  • 3 dliz
  • 4 goedlu
  • 5 zêmgu
  • 6 ziêz
  • 7 zadi
  • 8 uêdu
  • 9 mufi
  • 10 taz
  • 11 umsi
  • 12 tusi
  • 13 dlisi
  • 14 goedulsi
  • 15 gêmsi
  • 16 tisiziêz
  • 17 tisizadi
  • 18 tis(i)uêdu
  • 19 tisimufi
  • 20 fêmdi
  • 21 fêmdi onnu
  • 30 dlêmde
  • 40 goelamde
  • 50 zêmgoamde
  • 60 zizamde
  • 70 zidamde
  • 80 uêdamde
  • 90 mufamde
  • 100 zan

Ordinal NumbersEdit

Ordinal numbers are regular adjectives.

  • 1 blêniêlu, -e
  • 2 zikomdu, -e
  • 3 dilziêlu, -e
  • 4 goeldu, -e
  • 5 gêmdu, -e
  • 6 zizdu, -e
  • 7 zadênu, -e
  • 8 uêdefu, -e
  • 9 mumu, -e
  • 10 tazênu, -e

ConjunctionsEdit

CoordinatingEdit

  • i "and"
  • man "nor"
  • nez, bulan "but"
  • uo "or"
  • iamte "yet"
  • ezên "so"

CorrelativeEdit

  • henpuz/-ez ... i ... "both ... and ... "
  • uo ... uo ... "either ... or ... "
  • man ... man ... "neither ... nor ... "
  • meu ... nez ... "not ... but ... "
  • meu zu ... nez denpan ... "not only ... but also ... "

SubordinatingEdit

  • tibuêz "after"
  • gumdotu "although"
  • zi "if"
  • izadu "unless"
  • buldemdu "therefore"
  • ebisel "in spite of", "despite"

VerbsEdit

ConceptsEdit

There are three conjugation patterns, one for each thematic vowel. However, verbs in i share most forms with verbs in ê.

Many verbs have irregular forms coming from old dialects.


Sample ConjugationsEdit

Enel "love"Edit

Here is the full conjugation of the verb en-e-l "love".

IndicativeEdit
PresentEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular en-ø-u en-e-ø-z en-e-ø-
Plural en-e-ø-nuz en-e-ø-êz en-e-ø-n
PastEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular en-ø-iê- en-e-zd-i en-ø-uo-
Plural en-e-nuz en-e-zdiz en-e-len
ImperfectiveEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular en-e-fe- en-e-fe-z en-e-fe-
Plural en-e-fe-nuz en-e-fi-êz en-e-fe-n
PluperfectEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular en-e-le- en-e-le-z en-e-le-
Plural en-e-le-nuz en-e-li-êz en-e-le-n
FutureEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular en-e-liê- en-e-le-z en-e-le-
Plural en-e-la-nuz en-e-li-êz en-e-le-u
SubjunctiveEdit
PresentEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular en-i-ø en-i-z en-i-
Plural en-a-nuz en-i-êz en-a-n
PastEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular damai en-e-tu damain en-e-tu damai en-e-tu
Plural damainuz en-e-tu damêeêz en-e-tu damain en-e-tu
ImperfectiveEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular en-e-zi- en-e-zi-z en-e-zi-
Plural en-e-zi-nuz, en-e-za-nuz en-e-zi-êz en-e-za-n


FutureEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular en-e-l- en-e-l-iz en-e-l-
Plural en-e-l-nuz en-e-l-tiz en-e-l-an
ConditionalEdit
PresentEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular en-e-lai- en-e-lai-z en-e-lai-
Plural en-e-lai-nuz en-e-lai-êz en-e-lai-n
PastEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular dilai en-e-tu dilaiz en-e-tu dilai en-e-tu
Plural dilainuz en-e-tu dilaiêz en-e-tu dilain en-e-tu
ParticipleEdit
PresentEdit
  • en-e-mtu
PerfectiveEdit
  • en-e-tu
ImperativeEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular - en-e-- en-i--
Plural en-a-nuz en-i-êz en-a-n

Famtil "sell"Edit

Here is the full conjugation of the verb famt-i-l "love".

IndicativeEdit
PresentEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular famt-ø-u famt-i-ø-z famt-i-ø-
Plural famt-a-ø-nuz famt-i-ø-êz famt-a-ø-n
PastEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular famt-ø-iê- famt-i-zd-i famt-i-o-
Plural famt-a-nuz famt-i-zdiz famt-i-len
ImperfectiveEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular famt-a-i- famt-a-i-z famt-a-i-
Plural famt-a-i-nuz famt-a-i-êz famt-a-i-n
PluperfectEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular famt-i-le- famt-i-le-z famt-i-le-
Plural famt-i-le-nuz famt-i-li-êz famt-i-le-n
FutureEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular famt-i-liê- famt-i-le-z famt-i-le-
Plural famt-i-la-nuz famt-i-li-êz famt-i-le-u
SubjunctiveEdit
PresentEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular famt-e-ø famt-e-z famt-e-
Plural famt-e-nuz famt-e-êz famt-e-n
PastEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular damai famt-ê-tu damain famt-ê-tu damai famt-ê-tu
Plural damainuz famt-ê-tu damêeêz famt-ê-tu damain famt-ê-tu
ImperfectiveEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular famt-i-zi- famt-i-zi-z famt-i-zi-
Plural famt-i-zi-nuz, famt-i-za-nuz famt-i-zi-êz famt-i-za-n


FutureEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular famt-i-l- famt-i-l-iz famt-i-l-
Plural famt-i-l-nuz famt-i-l-tiz famt-i-l-an
ConditionalEdit
PresentEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular famt-i-lai- famt-i-lai-z famt-i-lai-
Plural famt-i-lai-nuz famt-i-lai-êz famt-i-lai-n
PastEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular dilai famt-ê-tu dilaiz famt-ê-tu dilai famt-ê-tu
Plural dilainuz famt-ê-tu dilaiêz famt-ê-tu dilain famt-ê-tu
ParticipleEdit
PresentEdit
  • famt-a-mtu
PerfectiveEdit
  • famt-ê-tu
ImperativeEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular - famt-i-- famt-e--
Plural famt-e-nuz famt-e-êz famt-e-n

Beldêl "leave"Edit

Here is the full conjugation of the verb beld-ê-l "love".

IndicativeEdit
PresentEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular beld-ø-u beld-i-z beld-i-
Plural beld-ê-nuz beld-ê-z beld-a-n
PastEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular beld-ø-ê beld-ê-zd-i beld-ê-o-
Plural beld-ê-nuz beld-ê-zdiz beld-ê-len
ImperfectiveEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular beld-a-i- beld-a-i-z beld-a-i-
Plural beld-a-i-nuz beld-a-i-êz beld-a-i-n
PluperfectEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular beld-ê-le- beld-ê-le-z beld-ê-le-
Plural beld-ê-le-nuz beld-ê-li-êz beld-ê-le-n
FutureEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular beld-ê-liê beld-ê-le-z beld-ê-le-
Plural beld-ê-la-nuz beld-ê-li-êz beld-ê-le-u
SubjunctiveEdit
PresentEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular beld-e-ø beld-e-z beld-e-
Plural beld-e-nuz beld-e-êz beld-e-n
PastEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular damai beld-ê-tu damain beld-ê-tu damai beld-ê-tu
Plural damainuz beld-ê-tu damêeêz beld-ê-tu damain beld-ê-tu
ImperfectiveEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular beld-ê-zi- beld-ê-zi-z beld-ê-zi-
Plural beld-ê-zi-nuz, beld-i-za-nuz beld-ê-zi-êz beld-ê-za-n


FutureEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular beld-ê-l- beld-ê-l-iz beld-ê-l-
Plural beld-ê-l-nuz beld-ê-l-tiz beld-ê-l-an
ConditionalEdit
PresentEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular beld-ê-lai- beld-ê-lai-z beld-ê-lai-
Plural beld-ê-lai-nuz beld-ê-lai-êz beld-ê-lai-n
PastEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular dilai beld-ê-tu dilaiz beld-ê-tu dilai beld-ê-tu
Plural dilainuz beld-ê-tu dilaiêz beld-ê-tu dilain beld-ê-tu
ParticipleEdit
PresentEdit
  • beld-ê-mtu
PerfectiveEdit
  • beld-ê-tu
ImperativeEdit
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Singular - beld-i- beld-e-
Plural beld-e-nuz beld-e-êz beld-e-n


VocabularyEdit

  • Swadesh List: Here we give the Swadesh List for Classical Tláymyts.

SampleEdit

  • "Dutuz uz unamz mezan rêfliz, in têkmêteti i in têliêduz. Iriz daan lesew i gumzêamzêe, i tafan eshêl on e u uodlu gun izbêlêdu ti êlnemteti."
    • ("All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.")

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