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There is no definite article in Difaron. Examples:

  • nuput "house, the house"
  • nup(u) "houses, the houses"


Plural form of nouns have a suffix -(e)r. E.g.:

  • nuput "house" - nup(u) "houses"
  • hewo "animal" - hewo.r "animals"
  • hoyes "aunt" - hoy(e) "aunts"
  • midu "bank" - midu.r "banks"
  • naboh "hospital" - nab(o) "hospitals"
  • mewe "knight" - mewe.r "knights"
  • wafarna "arm" - wafarna.r "arms"
  • wowero "star" - wow(e)ro.r "stars"


The following endings are used:

  • Accusative: -(e)n
  • Dative: -(e)t
  • Genitive: -yit
  • Locative: -ko
  • Instrumental: -hem
  • Ablative: -yur

Nominative has no endings.


There is no gender indication in nouns.


  • nospart "(a/the) hand"
  • "(the) hands"
  • nospart-ko "in the hand"
  • "in the hands"
  • nospart-hem "with the hand"
  • "with the hands"
  • wanne "(a/the) chief"
  • wanne.r "(the) chiefs"
  • wanne-yit "of the chief"
  • wanne.r-yit "of the chiefs"
  • wanne-t "to the chief"
  • nuput-ko "in the house"


Adjectives do not agree with nouns:

  • wanne mahmondef "(a/the) brave chief"
  • wanne.r mahmondef "(the) brave chiefs"
  • wanne-yit mahmondef "of the brave chief"
  • wanne-r-yit mahmondef "of the brave chiefs"
  • wanne-t mahmondef "to the brave chief"

When used as nouns, adjectives have full nominal declension:

  • mahmondef "(a/the) brave one"
  • (the) brave ones"
  • mahmondef-yit "of the brave one"
  • mahmondef.(e)r-yit "of the brave ones"
  • mahmondef-et "to the brave one"


Comparative of superiority is made with the prefix kellen-:

  • mahmondef "brave" - ken-mahmondef "braver"
  • wutem "good" - ken-wutem "better"

Relative Superlative is made with the suffix -ax:

  • mahmondef "brave" - mahmond(e)f-ax "the bravest"
  • wutem "good" - wut(e)m-ax "the best"

Absolute Superlative is made with the prefix bet-:

  • mahmondef "brave" - bet-mahmondef "very brave"
  • wutem "good" - bet-wutem "very good"



The first form given is the most common. Alternative forms are reductions or emphatic forms.

  • 1st person singular: har
  • 2nd person singular: yan
  • 3rd person singular: nen
  • 1st person plural: rotum
  • 2nd person plural: tebuw
  • 3rd person plural: naro


Possessive pronouns consist of a suffix added to the definite form of the noun. The genitive form of the personal pronouns is placed before the noun.

  • 1st person singular: haryit ...-(a)k
  • 2nd person singular: yanyit ...-(a)d
  • 3rd person singular: nenyit ...-(a)l
  • 1st person plural: rot(u)myit ...-(a)m
  • 2nd person plural: teb(u)wyit ...-(a)b
  • 3rd person plural: naryit ...-(a)n


  • haryit nup(u)t-ak "my house"
  • yanyit nup(u)t-ad "your house"
  • naryit nup(u)t.(e)r-an "their houses"

Case endings come after possessive suffixes:

  • haryit nup(u)t-ak.ko "in my house"
  • yanyit nup(u)t-ad.yit "from/of your house"
  • haryit nospart.(e)r-ak.hem "with my hands"



  • 0: nene
  • 1: t(e)ran
  • 2: nado
  • 3: mim
  • 4: xer
  • 5: nohgit
  • 6: fores
  • 7: feno
  • 8: moxuf
  • 9: nim
  • 10: yestun
  • 11: yestran
  • 12: yesnado
  • 13: yesmim
  • 14: yesxer
  • 15: yesnohgit
  • 16: yesfores
  • 17: yesfeno
  • 18: yesmoxuf
  • 19: yesnim
  • 20: layus
  • 30: yesmuner
  • 40: laymer
  • 50: nomhaper
  • 60: womerot
  • 70: fehagan
  • 80: koswet
  • 90: difshu
  • 100: nospanteh
  • 200: no-nospanteh
  • 300: mim-nospanteh
  • 1000: yahonet
  • 1234: yahonet no-yahonet yesmuner xer


Ordinal numbers are built with the genitive ending; the first ones have special forms:

  • 1st: retanyit
  • 2nd: nowyit
  • 3rd: yimyit
  • 4th: noh(e)ryit
  • 5th: nuhgûyit
  • 6th: ford(e)syit
  • 7th: fenyit
  • 8th: moxufyit
  • 9th: nimyit
  • 10th: yestunyit




In Difaron, the base verb form is the old aorist form. Derivational affixes are sometimes added to the old base form, sometimes added to the aorist form.

Many of the former derivational constructions are replaced by the use of auxiliary verbs and particles.

Both subject and object are indicated by prefixes. Emphatic pronouns are also generally used.


A verb root may have the following derivational stems:

  • -or-: Passiveness. Changes an active to a passive verb. Ex.: efhirwa "see", efhirorwa "be seen"
  • -bay-: Volitive. Translated by "want", "wish". Ex.: efhirwa "see", efhirbaywa "want to see"


The aspects indicated in an Arish verb are the following:

  • Perfective: no indication. Ex.: elfweha "lie down"; elfanweha "lay (something) down"
  • Imperfective: the particle mo is used before the verb. Ex.: mo efhirwa "see"
  • Inchoative: aws- is prefixed to the verb stem. Ex.: mewo "speak", awsmewo "start to speak"


can may must should


The subject prefix comes before, then comes the object prefix, if any.


  • 1st person singular: k(e)-
  • 2nd person singular: y(e)-
  • 3rd person singular: f(e)-
  • 1st person plural: m(e)-
  • 2nd person plural: t(e)-
  • 3rd person plural: n(e)-

Direct ObjectEdit

  • 1st person singular: -s-
  • 2nd person singular: -d-
  • 3rd person singular: -f-
  • 1st person plural: -m-
  • 2nd person plural: -b-
  • 3rd person plural: -t-


efhirwa "see"

  • The direct object is indicated in parentheses.


  • 1st person singular: har k(et)efhirwa
  • 2nd person singular: yan y(et)efhirwa
  • 3rd person singular: nen f(et)efhirwa
  • 1st person plural: rotum m(et)efhirwa
  • 2nd person plural: tebuw t(et)efhirwa
  • 3rd person plural: naro n(et)efhirwa


  • 1st person singular: har mo k(et)efhirwa
  • 2nd person singular: yan mo y(et)efhirwa
  • 3rd person singular: nen mo f(et)efhirwa
  • 1st person plural: rotum mo m(et)efhirwa
  • 2nd person plural: tebuw mo t(et)efhirwa
  • 3rd person plural: naro mo n(et)efhirwa


  • 1st person singular: har k(et)ausefhirwa
  • 2nd person singular: yan y(et)ausefhirwa
  • 3rd person singular: nen f(et)ausefhirwa
  • 1st person plural: rotum m(et)ausefhirwa
  • 2nd person plural: tebuw t(et)ausefhirwa
  • 3rd person plural: naro n(et)ausefhirwa

Volitive ImperfectiveEdit

  • 1st person singular: har mo k(et)efhirbaywa
  • 2nd person singular: yan mo y(et)efhirbaywa
  • 3rd person singular: nen mo f(et)efhirbaywa
  • 1st person plural: rotum mo m(et)efhirbaywa
  • 2nd person plural: tebuw mo t(et)efhirbaywa
  • 3rd person plural: naro mo n(et)efhirbaywa


  • har naron ketefhirwa "I have seen/saw/will have seen/would have seen them"
  • naro mo ha(re)n nesefhirwa "they see/are seeing/will see/are going to see me"
  • nen mo ya(ne)n fedefhirbaywa "he/she wants/wanted/is going to want to see you"


  • Tenlomsurer mado naro mo nemeshpa nafgemru, gorkuddun-ko ka hosesnater-ko. Naro nemeshtamken dewer-ko ka wosdat-ko, ka nebnodrana rohgi.r-et refsotken-ko shatrino-yit.
    • ("All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.")