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Swadesh Lists

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A Swadesh list is one of several lists of vocabulary with basic meanings, developed by Morris Swadesh in the 1940–50s, which is used in lexicostatistics (quantitative language relatedness assessment) and glottochronology (language divergence dating).

There are two basic versions of Swadesh list, one with 200 meanings, the other with 100 meanings. In the composite listing on this page, there are actually 207 meanings in total, since seven of the entries in the 100-meaning list (breast, fingernail, full, horn, knee, moon, round) were not in the original 200-meaning list.

There are currently 133 lists.

Georgian Swadesh list
Quechua Swadesh list
Hindi Swadesh list
Galician Swadesh list
Swadesh lists for Siouan languages
Lingua Franca Nova Swadesh list
Old French Swadesh list
Swadesh lists for Austro-Asiatic languages
Swadesh lists for Tai-Kadai languages
Swadesh lists for Muskogean languages
Swadesh lists for Pueblo languages
Swadesh lists for Penutian languages
Swadesh lists for Hokan languages
Swadesh lists for Australian languages
Swadesh lists for Paleosiberian languages
Burushaski Swadesh list
Burmese Swadesh list
Khmer Swadesh list
Swadesh lists for Niger-Congo languages
Swadesh lists for Altaic languages
Swadesh lists for Afro-Asiatic languages
Korean Swadesh list
Araucanian Swadesh lists
Purepecha Swadesh list
Ojibwe Swadesh list
Swadesh lists for Algonquian languages
Swadesh lists for Tibeto-Burman languages
Palestinian Arabic Swadesh list
Thai Swadesh list
White Hmong Swadesh list
Swadesh lists for Oto-Manguean languages
Swadesh lists for Mayan languages
Swadesh lists for Uto-Aztecan languages
Swadesh lists for Dené-Yeniseian languages
Mongolian Swadesh list
Swadesh lists for Baltic-Finnic languages
Albanian Swadesh list
Swadesh lists for Austronesian languages
Swedish Swadesh list
Swadesh for Malayo-Polynesian languages
Slovak Swadesh list
Ancient Greek Swadesh list
Tunisian Arabic Swadesh list
Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists
Ossetian Swadesh list
Swadesh lists for Italian languages
Esperanto Swadesh list
Armenian Swadesh list
Proto-Indo-European Swadesh list
Old Chinese Swadesh list
Gan Swadesh list
Walloon Swadesh list
Sanskrit Swadesh list
Tocharian B Swadesh list
Swadesh List 2
Kashubian Swadesh list
Megleno-Romanian Swadesh list
Luwian Swadesh list
Dutch Swadesh list
Afrikaans Swadesh list
West Frisian Swadesh list
Istro-Romanian Swadesh list
Hittite Swadesh list
Serbian Swadesh list
Aromanian Swadesh list
Sino-Tibetan Swadesh lists
Mandarin Swadesh list
Amoy Min Nan Swadesh list
Swadesh lists for Germanic languages
Swadesh lists for Dravidian languages
Indonesian Swadesh list
Malay Swadesh list
Haïtian Creole Swadesh list
Zulu Swadesh list
Vietnamese Swadesh list
Tajik Swadesh list
Turkish Swadesh list
Tahitian Swadesh list
Swahili Swadesh list
Tagalog Swadesh list
Spanish Swadesh list
Sranan Swadesh list
Scottish Gaelic Swadesh list
Slovene Swadesh list
Russian Swadesh list
Romanian Swadesh list
Romani Swadesh list
Swadesh list for Quechuan languages
Portuguese Swadesh list
Polish Swadesh list
Maltese Swadesh list
Malagasy Swadesh list
Macedonian Swadesh list
Lithuanian Swadesh list
Lingala Swadesh list
Latvian Swadesh list
Japanese Swadesh list
Italian Swadesh list
Irish Swadesh list
Hungarian Swadesh list
Icelandic Swadesh list
Hausa Swadesh list
Greek Swadesh list
Guaraní Swadesh list
German Swadesh list
Friulian Swadesh list
French Swadesh list
Estonian Swadesh list
Egyptian Arabic Swadesh list
Czech Swadesh list
Danish Swadesh list
Croatian Swadesh list
Cypriot Maronite Arabic Swadesh list
Catalan Swadesh list
Bulgarian Swadesh list
Cantonese Swadesh list
Breton Swadesh list
Belarusian Swadesh list
Basque Swadesh list
Bangala Swadesh list
Bashkir Swadesh list
Arabic Swadesh list
Antillean Creole Swadesh list
Swadesh lists for Turkic languages
Swadesh lists
Swadesh lists for Finno-Ugric languages
Swadesh lists for Iberian languages
Swadesh lists for Tupi-Guarani languages
Indo-Iranian Swadesh lists (extended)
Indo-Iranian Swadesh lists
Swadesh lists for Slavic languages
Swadesh lists for Celtic languages
Swadesh lists for further Romance languages

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